Etymology
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impedance (n.)

"hindrance," especially and originally "resistance due to induction in an electrical circuit," 1886, from impede + -ance. The classically correct formation would be *impedience.

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friction (n.)

1560s, "a chafing, rubbing," from French friction (16c.) and directly from Latin frictionem (nominative frictio) "a rubbing, rubbing down," noun of action from past-participle stem of fricare "to rub, rub down," which is of uncertain origin. Watkins suggests possibly from PIE root *bhreie- "to rub, break." De Vaan suggests a PIE bhriH-o- "to cut" and compares Sanskrit bhrinanti, Old Church Slavonic briti "to shave." Sense of "resistance to motion" is from 1722; figurative sense of "disagreement, clash, lack of harmony, mutual irritation" first recorded 1761. Related: Frictional.

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antithetic (adj.)

"containing an antithesis," c. 1600, from Latinized form of Greek antithetikos "contrasting, setting in opposition," from antithetos "placed in opposition," from antithesis "opposition, resistance," literally "a placing against" (see antithesis).

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bewitched (adj.)

late 14c. in the literal sense, "subjected to the influence of witchcraft," past-participle adjective from bewitch; the figurative sense of "charmed, fascinated, pleased beyond resistance" is from 1570s. Related: Bewitchedness.

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rheostat (n.)

1843, "instrument for regulating or adjusting the resistance in a circuit," coined by English inventor Charles Wheatstone from Greek rheos "a flowing, stream" (see rheo-) + -stat "regulating device." Related: Rheostatic.

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retardance (n.)

1550s, "slowness, a making slower, retardation," from French retardance, from retarder (see retard (v.)). It seems to persist in reference to resistance to fire, in which sense it dates from 1921. Related: Retardancy.

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sclerosis (n.)

"a hardening," especially "morbid hardening of the tissue," late 14c., from Medieval Latin sclerosis "a hardness, hard tumor," from Greek sklērosis "hardening," from sklēros "hard" (see sclero-). Figurative use, "excessive resistance to change," is by 1954.

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ohm (n.)

unit of electrical resistance, 1867, in recognition of German physicist Georg S. Ohm (1789-1854), who determined the law of the flow of electricity. Originally proposed as ohma (1861) as a unit of voltage. Related: ohmage; ohmic; ohmeter.

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whole cloth (n.)

early 15c., "piece of cloth of full size," as opposed to a piece cut out for a garment; figurative sense first attested 1570s.

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passive (adj.)

late 14c., passif, of matter, "capable of being acted upon;" of persons, "receptive;" also in the grammatical sense "expressive of being affected by some action" (opposed to active), from Old French passif "suffering, undergoing hardship" (14c.) and directly from Latin passivus "capable of feeling or suffering," from pass-, past-participle stem of pati "to suffer" (see passion).

The meaning "not active or acting" is recorded from late 15c.; the sense of "unresisting, not opposing, enduring suffering without resistance" is from 1620s. Related: Passively. As a noun, late 14c. as "a capacity in matter for being acted upon;" also in grammar, "a passive verb."

Passive resistance is attested in 1819 in Scott's "Ivanhoe" and was used throughout 19c.; it was re-coined by Gandhi c. 1906 in South Africa. Passive-aggressive with reference to behavior or personality characterized by indirect resistance but avoidance of direct confrontation is attested by 1971.

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