"entire body or company; the full amount," late 14c., from whole (adj.).
"fleshy, portly, stout," late 14c., from Old French corpulent "stout, fat," from Latin corpulentus "fleshy, fat," from corpus "body" (from PIE root *kwrep- "body, form, appearance") + -ulentus "full of." Leigh Hunt was sent to prison for two years for calling the Prince Regent corpulent in print in 1812.
1832, Latin, literally "body of the offense;" not "the murder victim's body," but the basic elements that make up a crime, which in the case of a murder includes the body of the victim. For first element, see corpus. With delictum "a fault, offense, crime, transgression," etymologically "a falling short" of the standard of law, neuter singular of past participle of delinquere "to fail; be wanting, fall short; offend" (see delinquent).
Thus, a man who is proved to have clandestinely buried a dead body, no matter how suspicious the circumstances, cannot thereby be convicted of murder, without proof of the corpus delicti--that is, the fact that death was feloniously produced by him. [Century Dictionary]
"determination, firmness or fixedness of purpose; a determination," 1590s, from resolve (v.). Meaning "a determination of a deliberative body" is from 1650s.
early 15c., "manner of carrying the body," from Medieval Latin gestura "bearing, behavior, mode of action," from Latin gestus "gesture, carriage, posture" (see gest). Restricted sense of "a movement of the body or a part of it, intended to express a thought or feeling," is from 1550s; figurative sense of "action undertaken in good will to express feeling" is from 1916.
1620s, transitive, "to place, set," from posture (n.). Intransitive sense of "assume a particular posture of the body, dispose the body in a particular attitude" is by 1851 (at first in reference to contortionists). The figurative sense of "take up an artificial position of the mind or character" (hence "display affectation") is attested by 1877. Related: Postured; posturing.
1550s, in grammar, "addition of a letter or syllable to a word," from Late Latin, from Greek prosthesis "a putting to, an addition," from prostithenai "add to," from pros "to" (see pros-) + tithenai "to put, to place" (from reduplicated form of PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
From 1706 in medical arts as "the addition of an artificial part to supply a defect of the body" on the notion of "that which is added to" the body. The sense was extended to "artificial body part" by 1900. Plural prostheses.