pompadour (n.)

1750s in reference to fashions of dress, etc., among the French aristocracy, especially a women's hairstyle with the hair swept up over the forehead, in recognition of Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), mistress of Louis XV from 1745-50, who wore her hair in an upswept style rolled off from the forehead over a cushion. Her name also was used in her lifetime in reference to accessories, furniture, and a certain shade of crimson or pink. The estate of Pompadour is in the Limousin region. By 1887 in reference to a men's hairstyle.

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pardon (v.)

mid-15c., pardounen, "to forgive for offense or sin," from Old French pardoner and Medieval Latin perdonare (see pardon (n.)).

'I grant you pardon,' said Louis XV to Charolais, who, to divert himself, had just killed a man; 'but I also pardon whoever will kill you.' [Marquis de Sade, "Philosophy in the Bedroom"]

Related: Pardoned; pardoning. Pardon me as a phrase used when making apology is by 1764; pardon my French as exclamation of apology for obscene language is by 1895.

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second-class (adj.)

"belonging to the class next after the first," 1833, from the noun phrase (1810) indicating the second of a ranked series of classes (originally in a university, later of railroad accommodations, etc.), from second (adj.) + class (n.). The phrase second-class citizen is recorded from 1942 in U.S. history.

The Negro recognizes that he is a second-class citizen and that status is fraught with violent potentialities, particularly today when he is living up to the full responsibilities of citizenship on the field of battle. [Louis E. Martin, "To Be or Not to Be a Liberal," in The Crisis, September 1942]
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movement in painting associated with Henri Matisse, 1915, from French fauve, "wild beast," a term applied in contempt to these painters by French art critic Louis Vauxcelles at Autumn Salon of 1905. The movement was a reaction against impressionism, featuring vivid use of colors. French fauve (12c.) in Old French meant "fawn-colored horse, dark-colored thing, dull," and is from Frankish *falw- or some other Germanic source, cognate with German falb "dun, pale yellowish-brown" and English fallow "brownish-yellow," from PIE root *pel- (1) "pale." Related: Fauvism (1912).

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picturephone (n.)

"video-telephone," 1964, from picture (n.) + phone (n.1).

Buck Rogers thought it up more than 25 years ago, and Bell System has been working on it here for 15 years. Now it's here.
It is called Picturephone, and it is a small television camera and receiver that allows telephone users to gaze into the features of the person they are talking to.
Whether this really is a boon to mankind remains to be seen.
["Picturephones Are On The Way," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Aug. 28, 1970]
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centralize (v.)

1795, "to bring to a center, draw to a central point;" 1800, "come to a center," from central + -ize, on model of French centraliser (1790). A word from the French Revolution, generally applied to the transferring of local administration to the central government. Related: Centralized; centralizing.

Government should have a central point throughout its whole periphery. The state of the monthly expences amounted to four hundred millions; but within these seven months, it is reduced to one hundred and eighty millions. Such is the effect of the centralization of government; and the more we centralize it, the more we shall find our expenses decrease. [Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, "Discourse on the State of the Finances," 1793]
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deluge (n.)

late 14c., "an overflowing of water, a great flood, Noah's Flood in Genesis," from Old French deluge (12c.), earlier deluve, from Latin diluvium "flood, inundation," from diluere "wash away," from dis- "away" (see dis-) + -luere, combining form of lavere "to wash" (from PIE root *leue- "to wash"). Figurative sense of "anything that overflows or floods" is from early 15c.

After me the deluge (F. après moi le déluge), a saying ascribed to Louis XV, who expressed thus his indifference to the results of his policy of selfish and reckless extravagance, and perhaps his apprehension of coming disaster. [Century Dictionary]
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hep (1)

"aware, up-to-date," first recorded 1908 in "Saturday Evening Post," but said to be underworld slang, of unknown origin. Variously said to have been the name of "a fabulous detective who operated in Cincinnati" [Louis E. Jackson and C.R. Hellyer, "A Vocabulary of Criminal Slang," 1914] or a saloonkeeper in Chicago who "never quite understood what was going on ... (but) thought he did" [American Speech, XVI, 154/1]. Taken up by jazz musicians by 1915. With the rise of hip (adj.) by the 1950s, the use of hep ironically became a clue that the speaker was unaware and not up-to-date.

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adolescent (n.)

mid-15c., "youth, young person, one who is growing up," from French adolescent (15c.) or directly from Latin adolescentem/adulescentem (nominative adolescens/adulescens) "young man or woman, a youth," noun use of an adjective meaning "growing, near maturity, youthful," present participle of adolescere "grow up, come to maturity, ripen," from ad "to" (see ad-) + alescere "be nourished," hence, "increase, grow up," inchoative of alere "to nourish," from a suffixed form of PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish." Adolesce was a back-formed verb used early 20c. (OED quotes H.G. Wells, G.B. Shaw, Louis MacNeice), but it seems not to have taken.

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epeiric (adj.)

in reference to seas covering continental shelves, 1915, from Greek ēpeiros "mainland, land, continent" (as opposed to the sea and the islands), from PIE root *apero- "shore" (source also of Old English ofer "bank, rim, shore," Old Frisian over "bank") + -ic.

As the term "continental deposits" in this sense is now ingrained in Geology, we can no longer use Dana's "continental seas" without raising a question in the mind as to what is meant when their deposits are considered. For this reason we propose here to use epeiric seas (meaning seas that lie upon the continents) for the bodies of water that lie within the continents in the downwarps of the continental masses. [Louis V. Pirsson, "A Text-Book of Geology," 1915]
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