"able to supply one's own needs, capable of fulfilling one's own desires without aid of others," 1580s, from self- + sufficient. Related: Self-sufficiently. Self-sufficing (1680s) is properly "sufficient for oneself."
"act of denying one's own wishes; refusal to satisfy one's own desires," 1640s, from self- + denial.
Self-denial is to be presumed wise, necessary, or benevolent, unless indication is given to the contrary ; it may be the denial of selfishness; it may be not only the refusal to take what one might have, but the voluntary surrender of what one has ; it may be an act, a habit, or a principle. [Century Dictionary]
Related: Self-denier; self-denying (adj.) is by 1630s as "involving self-denial," also "characterized by or involving denial of one's self."
1640s, "scrutiny into one's own state, conduct, or motives," from self- + examination. By 1955 as "examination of one's own body for signs of illness."
"explaining itself, obvious, bearing its meaning on the surface," 1813, from self- + explanatory. Earlier was self-explained (1725).
1734, of persons, "self-control;" 1798, of states, nations, provinces, cities, etc., "administration of its own affairs without outside direction or interference," from self- + government. Related: Self-governing (1680s); self-governed (1709 as an adjective, of persons, "marked by self-control").
"self-defense," 1706, from self- + protection.
"the making actual, by an exertion of will, that which lies dormant in one's soul; the fulfilment, by one's own effort, of the potential in one's soul," 1839, from self- + realization.
"disregard of the self or self-interest," 1800; see self- + abandonment. Self-abandoned is attested from 1774; self-abandon (n.) is by 1872.