Proto-Indo-European root meaning "furrow, track."
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin lira "furrow;" Old Prussian lyso "field bed;" Old Church Slavonic lexa "field bed, furrow;" Old High German leisa "track," Gothic laistjan "to follow," Old English læran "to teach."
1590s, originally, as in Greek and Roman mythology, the last and worst age of the world; the archaeological sense of "period in which humans used iron tools and weapons" is from 1866 (earlier in this sense iron period, 1847).
1540s, "a goal, a guiding object," from French finalité, from Late Latin finalitatem (nominative finalitas) "state of being final," from Latin finalis "last, of or pertaining to an end" (see final). From 1833 as "quality or state of being final."
mid-14c., "to stock or supply (a ship, garrison, etc.) with provisions to last for some time," from Anglo-French or Old French vitaillier (12c.), from vitaille (see victuals). Related: Victualed; victualing; Victualer; victualler.
1650s, from Late Latin ultimatus, past participle of ultimare "to be final, come to an end," from Latin ultimus (fem. ultima) "last, final, farthest, most distant, extreme," superlative of *ulter "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond"). As a noun from 1680s. Ultimate Frisbee is attested by 1972.
mythical land in L. Frank Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" (1900) and sequels; according to an anecdote written by Baum in 1903, inspired by a three-drawer desktop cabinet letter file, the last drawer labeled O-Z. As Australian slang for "Australia," attested by 1983.
1540s, "utmost point of a thing," from extreme (adj.); originally of the end of life (compare Latin in extremis in reference to the "last stages of life"). Phrase in the extreme "in an extreme degree" attested from c. 1600. Hence extremes "extremities, opposite ends of anything" (1550s); also "extreme measures" (1709).
Thursday before Easter, mid-15c., from Middle English maunde "the Last Supper" (c. 1300), also "ceremony of washing the feet of poor persons or inferiors, performed as a religious rite on Maundy Thursday" (early 14c.), from Old French mandé, from Latin mandatum "commandment" (see mandate (n.)); said to be so called in reference to the opening words of the Latin church service for this day, Mandatum novum do vobis "A new commandment I give unto you" (John xiii:34), words supposedly spoken by Jesus to the Apostles after washing their feet at the Last Supper.