periphrasis (n.)

"roundabout way of speaking; an instance of this," 1530s, from Latin periphrasis "circumlocution," from Greek periphrasis, from periphrazein "speak in a roundabout way," from peri "around, about" (see peri-) + phrazein "to express" (see phrase (n.)).

Periphrasis is also known as circumlocution; but the term periphrasis generally refers to those cases where the figure is used with effect, while "circumlocution" refers to its faulty use. Periphrasis may be defined as naming a thing indirectly by means of some well-known attribute, or characteristic, or attendant circumstance. [James De Mille, "The Elements of Rhetoric," 1878]
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retaliation (n.)

"return of like for like, action of retaliating," 1580s, noun of action from Late Latin retaliare "pay back in kind," from re- "back" (see re-) + Latin talio "exaction of payment in kind," believed to be a derivative (on the notion of "compensation with the same") of talis "suchlike" from PIE *teh-li- "such" (source also of Welsh talu "to pay," Greek tēlikos "of such an age," Lithuanian tōlei, Old Church Slavonic toli "to such a degree"); see -th (1).

Originally used repayments of good or evil, now usually of injuries, insult, etc. Meaning "an instance of retaliating" is from 1640s.

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explanation (n.)

"an act of explaining; a meaning or interpretation assigned," late 14c., explanacioun, from Latin explanationem (nominative explanatio) "an explanation, interpretation," noun of action from past-participle stem of explanare "to make plain or clear, explain," literally "make level, flatten," from ex "out" (see ex-) + planus "flat" (from PIE root *pele- (2) "flat; to spread").

An individual fact is said to be explained, by pointing out its cause, that is, by stating the law or laws of causation of which its production is an instance. Thus. a conflagration is explained, when it is proved to have arisen from a spark falling into the midst of a heap of combustibles. [J.S. Mill, "Logic"]
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Biblical title of honor, literally "father," used as an invocation of God, from Latin abba, from Greek abba, from Aramaic (Semitic) abba "the father, my father," emphatic state of abh "father." Also a title in the Syriac and Coptic churches.

It is used in the New Testament three times (Mark xiv. 36, Rom. viii. 15, Gal. iv. 6), in each instance accompanied by its translation, "Abba, Father," as an invocation of the Deity, expressing close filial relation. Either through its liturgical use in the Judeo-Christian church or through its employment by the Syriac monks, it has passed into general ecclesiastical language in the modified form of abbat or abbot .... [Century Dictionary]
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chatter (v.)

early 13c., chateren "to twitter, make quick, shrill sounds" (of birds), "to gossip, talk idly or thoughtlessly" (of persons), earlier cheateren, chiteren, of echoic origin. Compare Dutch koeteren "jabber," Danish kvidre "twitter, chirp." Of teeth, "make a rattling noise from cold or fright," mid-15c. Related: Chattered; chattering.

Phrase chattering class was in use by 1893, with perhaps an isolated instance from 1843:

Such was the most interesting side of the fatal event to that idle chattering class of London life to whom the collision of heaven and earth were important only as affording matter for "news!" [Catherine Grace F. Gore ("Mrs. Gore"), "The Banker's Wife," 1843]
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example (n.)

late 14c., "an instance typical of a class; a model, either good or bad, action or conduct as an object of imitation; an example to be avoided; punishment as a warning," partial re-Latinization of earlier essample, asaumple (mid-13c.), from Old French essemple "sample, model, example, precedent, cautionary tale," from Latin exemplum "a sample, specimen; image, portrait; pattern, model, precedent; a warning example, one that serves as a warning," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "remove, take out, take away; free, release, deliver, make an exception of," from ex "out" (see ex-) + emere "buy," originally "take," from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute." 

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in- (1)
Origin and meaning of in-
word-forming element meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant, a tendency which began in later Latin), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, all from PIE root *ne- "not."

In Old French and Middle English often en-, but most of these forms have not survived in Modern English, and the few that do (enemy, for instance) no longer are felt as negative. The rule of thumb in English has been to use in- with obviously Latin elements, un- with native or nativized ones.
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immense (adj.)

"great beyond measure," early 15c., from Old French immense (mid-14c.), from Latin immensus "immeasurable, boundless," also used figuratively, from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + mensus "measured," past participle of metiri "to measure" (from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure"). A vogue word in 18c., and mocked as such:

For instance, a long while every thing was immense great and immense little, immense handsome and immense ugly. Miss Tippet from the cloisters, could not drink tea with Master Parchment at the White Conduit-house, unless it was an immense fine day, yet probably it might rain so immense, there was no going without a coach. ["Town and Country Magazine" (in "Annual Register" for 1772)]
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correction (n.)

mid-14c., correccioun, "authority to correct;" late 14c., "action of correcting or chastising, rectification of faults (in character, conduct, etc.) by restraints or punishments," also "a bringing into conformity to a standard, model, or original," from Old French correccion (13c.) "correction, amendment; punishment, rebuke," from Latin correctionem (nominative correctio) "an amendment, improvement," noun of action from past-participle stem of corrigere "to put straight; to reform" (see correct (v.)).

Meaning "an instance of correction, that which is proposed or substituted for what is wrong" is from 1520s. House of correction "place of confinement, intended to be reformatory, for those convicted of minor offenses and not considered as belonging to the professional criminal class" was in an English royal statute from 1575.

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precedent (n.)

early 15c., "previous instance or circumstance which may be taken as a rule in subsequent similar cases; a custom, habit, or rule established," from the adjective precedent "preceding in time, previous, former" (c. 1400), from Old French precedent (also used as a noun) and directly from Latin praecedentum (nominative praecedens), present participle of praecedere "go before" (see precede).

Meaning "thing or person that goes before another" is attested from mid-15c. Specifically in law, "a judicial decision which serves as a rule for future determinations in similar or analogous cases," by 1680s. As a verb meaning "to furnish with a precedent" from 1610s, now only in past participle precedented.

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