1846, toast or expression wishing good health (from 16c., famously a drinking pledge by German students), Latin, literally "may it advantage (you)," third person singular present subjunctive of prodesse "to do good, be profitable" (see proud (adj.)).
1847, in reference to health; 1864 in reference to salvation, from German soteriologie, from Greek soteria "preservation, salvation," from soizein "save, preserve," related to sōs "safe, healthy," which is of uncertain origin (perhaps from PIE root *teue- "to swell," on the notion of "to be strong"). With -ology.
also gynaecology, "science of women's health and of the diseases peculiar to women," 1847, from French gynécologie, from Latinized form of Greek gynaiko-, combining form of gynē "woman, female," from PIE root *gwen- "woman." Second element is from French -logie "study of," from Greek (see -logy). Another word for it was gyniatrics.
early 15c., reviven, "regain consciousness; recover health," also transitive, "restore (someone) to health, revive (someone or something)," from Old French revivre (10c.) and directly from Latin revivere "to live again," from re- "again" (see re-) + vivere "to live" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live").
The meaning "bring back to use or notice" is from mid-15c.; as "put an old play on stage again after a lapse of time" by 1823. The intransitive sense of "return to a flourishing state" is by 1560s. Of feelings, activities, "begin to occur again" (intransitive), mid-15c. Related: Revived; reviving.
c. 1200, remedie, "means of counteracting sin or evil of any kind; cure for a vice or temptation;" late 14c., "a cure for a disease or disorder, medicine or process which restores health;" from Anglo-French remedie, Old French remede "remedy, cure" (12c., Modern French remède) and directly from Latin remedium "a cure, remedy, medicine, antidote, that which restores health," from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (or perhaps literally, "again;" see re-), + mederi "to heal" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").
Figurative use is from c. 1300. The meaning "legal redress; means for obtaining justice, redress, or compensation through a court" is by mid-15c.
late 14c., "contaminated with dangerous disease; deadly, poisonous," from Latin pestilentem (nominative pestilens) "infected, unhealthy," from pestilis "of the nature of a plague," from pestis "deadly contagious disease" (see pest (n.)). Transferred sense of "mischievous, pernicious, hurtful to health or morals" is from 1510s; weakened sense of "troublesome" is from 1590s. Related: Pestilently.