Etymology
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diagram (n.)

1610s, "an illustrative figure giving only the outlines or general scheme of the object;" 1640s in geometry, "a drawing for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a figure;" from French diagramme, from Latin diagramma "a scale, a musical scale," from Greek diagramma "geometric figure, that which is marked out by lines," from diagraphein "mark out by lines, delineate," from dia "across, through" (see dia-) + graphein "write, mark, draw" (see -graphy). Related: Diagrammatic; diagrammatically.

The verb, "to draw or put in the form of a diagram," is by 1822, from the noun. Related: Diagrammed; diagramming.

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phonetics (n.)

"phonetic science, scientific study of speech," 1841, from phonetic; also see -ics.

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crossbones (n.)

also cross-bones, "figure of two thigh-bones laid across each other in the form of an X," 1798, from cross- + bone (n.).

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synecdoche (n.)

"figure of speech in which a part is taken for the whole or vice versa," late 15c. correction of synodoches (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin synodoche, alteration of Late Latin synecdoche, from Greek synekdokhe "the putting of a whole for a part; an understanding one with another," literally "a receiving together or jointly," from synekdekhesthai "supply a thought or word; take with something else, join in receiving," from syn- "with" (see syn-) + ek "out" (see ex-) + dekhesthai "to receive," related to dokein "seem good" (from PIE root *dek- "to take, accept"). Typically an attribute or adjunct substituted for the thing meant ("head" for "cattle," "hands" for "workmen," "wheels" for "automobile," etc.). Compare metonymy. Related: Synecdochical.

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nonagon (n.)

"plane figure with nine sides and nine angles," 1680s, a hybrid from Latin nonus "ninth" (from novem "nine;" see nine) + ending from pentagon, etc.

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quadrangle (n.)

late 14c., "a plane figure having four angles; a rectangle, square, etc.," from Old French quadrangle (13c.) and directly from Late Latin quadrangulum "four-sided figure," noun use of neuter of Latin adjective quadrangulus "having four corners," from Latin quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four") + angulus "angle" (see angle (n.)). Meaning "four-sided court nearly surrounded by buildings" is from 1590s.

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speechify (v.)

"talk in a pompous, pontifical way," 1723, from speech + -ify. Related: Speechifying; speechification.

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parley (n.)

"conference, conversation, speech," especially with an enemy, mid-15c., parlai, from Old French parlée, from fem. past participle of Old French parler "to speak" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *paraulare, from Late Latin parabolare "to speak (in parables)," from parabola "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola "comparison" (see parable).

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refigure (v.)

late 14c., refiguren, "represent; represent again" (to the mind), from re- "again, back" + figure (v.) or else from Latin refigurare. Related: Refigured; refiguring; refiguration

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metonymy (n.)

in rhetoric, a trope or figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for that of another that is suggested by or closely associated with it (such as the bottle for "alcoholic drink," the Kremlin for "the Russian government"); 1560s, from French métonymie (16c.) and directly from Late Latin metonymia, from Greek metōnymia, literally "change of name," related to metonomazein "to call by a new name; to take a new name," from meta "change" (see meta-) + onyma, dialectal form of onoma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). It often serves to call up associations not suggested by the literal name. Related: Metonymic; metonymical; metonymically.

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