"extortionate rent, rent raised to the highest possible limit, rent greater than any tenant can be expected to pay," especially of land-rents in Ireland, c. 1600, from rent (n.) + rack (v.1) in the otherwise obsolete sense of "extort or obtain by rapacity, raise (rent, etc.) above a fair level" (1550s).
mid-15c., serenite, "fair, calm, clear weather," from Old French (Modern French sérénité) and directly from Latin serenitatem (nominative serenitas) "clearness, serenity," from serenus (see serene). Of persons, "tranquility of mind or temper," by 1590s. Also formerly used as a title of honor for kings (mid-15c.), probably from the similar use of Latin serenitas, which was applied to Roman emperors and later to popes.
1844, western U.S. (1842 as a Mexican word in English), from American Spanish bonanza "a rich lode," originally "fair weather at sea, prosperity," from Vulgar Latin *bonacia, from Latin bonus "good" (see bonus). The Spanish word was transferred to mines, then, in English, to farms, then used generally for "a profitable thing."
c. 1400, integrite, "innocence, blamelessness; chastity, purity," from Old French integrité and directly from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "soundness, wholeness, completeness," figuratively "purity, correctness, blamelessness," from integer "whole" (see integer).
The sense of "wholeness, perfect condition" is attested from mid-15c.; that of "soundness of moral principle and character; entire uprightness or fidelity, especially in regard to truth and fair dealing" is by 1540s.
1809 in reference to the blood that flows in the veins of the old and aristocratic families of Spain, translating Spanish sangre azul, claimed by certain families of Castile that held themselves uncontaminated by Moorish or Jewish admixture; the term probably is from the notion of the visible veins of people of fair complexion. In reference to English families by 1827. As a noun, "member of an old and aristocratic family," by 1877. See blue (adj.1) + blood (n.).
masc. proper name, Italian, from Old High German Hlothari, Hludher (whence German Luther, French Lothaire; the Old English equivalent was Hloðhere), literally "famous warrior," from Old High German lut (see loud) + heri "host, army" (see harry (v.)). As a characteristic name for a jaunty rake, 1756, from "the gay Lothario," name of the principal male character in Nicholas Rowe's "The Fair Penitent" (1703).
fem. proper name, popularized, by Macpherson (1761). It is identical to a Scots Gaelic word for "wine" (and thus perhaps from the same source as vine), but it is sometimes said to be from Scots Gaelic fionn "white" also "fair" (of complexion or hair), from Old Irish find, from Proto-Celtic *windos "white," which would make it cognate with Welsh gwyn (as in Gwendolyn).
"spider," Middle English atter-coppe, from Old English atorcoppe "spider," literally "poison-head," from ator "poison, venom" (Middle English atter), from Proto-Germanic *aitra- "poisonous ulcer" (source also of Old Norse eitr, Old High German eitar "poison;" German eiter "pus," Old High German eiz "abscess, boil;" Old English atorcræft "art of poisoning") + copp "top, summit, round head," probably also "spider" (compare cobweb and Dutch spinne-cop "spider").
Amptes & attircoppes & suche oþer þat ben euere bisy ben maide to schewe man ensaumple of stodye & labour. [Elucidarium of Honorius of Autun (Wycliffite version) c. 1400]
Archaic and provincial; used 20c. by Tolkien. It also lingered in Northern England dialect in the sense "peevish, ill-natured person" (c. 1500).
masc. proper name, from Old French Barthelemieu, from Latin Bartholomæus, from Greek Bartholomaios, from Aramaic (Semitic) bar Talmay, literally "son of Talmai," from the proper name Talmai, literally "abounding in furrows." One of the twelve Apostles, his festival is Aug. 24. On this date in 1572 took place the massacre of Protestants in France. London's popular Bartholomew Fair was held annually around his day from 1133 to 1855.
"beautiful woman well-dressed; reigning beauty," 1620s, from French belle, from Old French bele, from Latin bella, fem. of bellus "beautiful, fair," from PIE *dwenelo-, diminutive form of root *deu- (2) "to do, perform; show favor, revere." "The dim. meaning is the reason why bellus was originally used to refer to women and children; it was applied to men only ironically" [de Vaan].