mid-13c., "to cut off the foreskin," from Old French circoncisier "circumcise" (12c., Modern French circoncire) and directly from Latin circumcisus, past participle of circumcidere "to cut round, to cut, trim, prune off," from circum "around" (see circum-) + caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike."). Related: Circumcised; circumcising.
late 14c., "a cutting made in surgery," from Old French incision (13c.) and directly from Latin incisionem (nominative incisio) "a cutting into," recorded only in figurative senses, noun of action from past-participle stem of incīdere "to cut, cut through, cut open," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + -cidere, combining form of caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). Meaning "act of cutting into" is from early 15c.
"to cut off," 1650s, from Latin abscindere "to cut off, divide, part, separate" (see abscissa). Related: Abscinded; abscinding.
"to cut, trim, remove the top of," early 14c., pollen, "to cut short the hair" (of an animal or person), from poll (n.). Of trees or plants from mid-15c. (implied in polled), Related: Polling. A deed poll "deed executed by one party only," is from the earlier verbal meaning "cut the hair of," because the deed was cut straight rather than indented (compare indenture (n.)).
"cleared land," 1620s, from Old Norse or Old Danish þveit "a clearing, meadow, paddock," literally "a cutting, cut-piece" (related to Old English þwitan "to cut, cut off;" see whittle). Always a rare word and now obsolete, but frequently encountered in place names, but "It is unclear whether the base meaning was 'something cut off, detached piece of land,' or 'something cut down, felled tree' ..." [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names].
Middle English sheren, "cut or clip, especially with a sharp instrument," from Old English sceran, scieran (class IV strong verb; past tense scear, past participle scoren; Middle English shorne) "to cleave, hew, cut with a sharp instrument; cut (the hair), shave (the beard), shear (a sheep)," from Proto-Germanic *skero "to cut" (source also of Old Norse and Old Frisian skera, Dutch scheren, German scheren "to shear"), from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut." Related: Shorn; shearing.
Middle English shrede "scrap or fragment; strip hanging from a garment," from Old English screade "piece cut off, cutting, scrap," from Proto-Germanic *skraudōn- (source also of Old Frisian skred "a cutting, clipping," Middle Dutch schroode "shred," Middle Low German schrot "piece cut off," Old High German scrot, "scrap, shred, a cutting, piece cut off," German Schrot "log, block, small shot," Old Norse skrydda "shriveled skin"), from PIE *skreu- "to cut; cutting tool," extension of root *sker- (1) "to cut."
"cutting tooth," 1670s, from Medieval Latin incisor "a cutting tooth," literally "that which cuts into," from Latin incisus, past participle of incīdere "to cut, cut through, cut open; engrave," from in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + -cidere, combining form of caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). Inscisours as the name of a cutting tool is attested from early 15c. Related: Incisorial.