"pertaining to Sparta," 1709, from Latin Lacedaemonius, from Greek Lakedaimonios, from Lakedaimon, an ancient Greek name for Sparta as the capital of Lakonia (see laconic). From 1713 as a noun.
capital of Ireland, literally "black pool," from Irish dubh "black" + linn "pool." In reference to the dark waters of the River Liffey. Related: Dubliner.
1680s, "republican principles; a republican form of government," from republican (adj.) + -ism. With capital R-, in reference to the modern U.S. Republican Party by 1856.
capital of Colombia, founded 1530s, the name is from Chibcha (an indigenous language) Bacata, native name of a settlement of the Muisca people that stood there when the Spanish arrived.
capital of France, from Gallo-Latin Lutetia Parisorum (in Late Latin also Parisii), name of a fortified town of the Gaulish tribe of the Parisii, who had a capital there; literally "Parisian swamps" (see Lutetian).
The tribal name is of unknown origin, but it is traditionally derived from a Celtic par "boat" (perhaps related to Greek baris; see barge (n.)), hence the ship on the city's coat of arms.
capital of Bosnia, founded 15c. and named in Turkish as Bosna-Saray, "Palace on the (River) Bosna," from saray (see caravanserai); the modern name is a Slavic adjectival form of saray.
also Teheran, Iranian capital, said to mean "flat, level, lower," but sometimes derived from Old Persian teh "warm" + ran "place."
Venezuelan capital, founded 1567 by the Spaniards on the site of a razed village of the Caracas people, whose name is of unknown origin, and named for them.
city in eastern India, former capital of British India, named for Hindu goddess Kali. In modern use often de-Englished as Kolkata.