Etymology
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defragment (v.)

1992, "reduce the fragmentation of (computer files) by reuniting parts stored in separate locations on a disk," from de- + fragment (v.) . Related: Defragmented; defragmenting.

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digitize (v.)

1704, "to finger, handle," a sense now obsolete; see digit + -ize. From 1953 in reference to computer programming, "convert into a sequence of digits." Related: Digitized; digitizing.

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Turing machine (n.)
1937, named for English mathematician and computer pioneer Alan M. Turing (1912-1954), who described such a device in 1936.
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refresh (n.)

1590s, "act of resupplying, refreshment," from refresh (v.). Modern computer sense of "an act or the process of renewing data or display" is by 1967.

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terminal (n.)
"end point of a railway line," 1888, from terminal (adj.); sense of "device for communicating with a computer" is first recorded 1954. Earlier "final part of a word" (1831).
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off-line (adj.)

1926, of railroads, "not done on a railway;" 1950, in computing, "not controlled by or connected to a computer or network;" from off (prep.) + line (n.).

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civics (n.)

"the science of government, study of the rights and responsibilities of a citizen," 1885, in American Institute of Civics, incorporated May 1885, from civic, by analogy with politics (see -ics).

"The term 'Civics,' however unfamiliar the word, could be wisely applied with a broader significance than that attached to 'Political Science,' as including not only the science of government, but political economy, and that part of social science which is related to government and citizenship." [E.E. White, quoted in The School Journal, July 25, 1885]
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chromatology (n.)

"the science of colors," 1846; see chromato- + -logy.

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liveware (n.)
"people," 1966, computer-programmer jargon, from live (adj.) + ending abstracted from software, etc. Compare old nautical slang live lumber "landsmen on board a ship" (1785).
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gaming (n.)
c. 1500, "gambling," verbal noun from game (v.). From 1980s in reference to video and computer games. Gaming-house is from 1620s; gaming-table from 1590s.
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