late 14c., "group of people, animals, etc.; kind or variety of person or animal," from Old French sorte "class, kind," from Latin sortem (nominative sors) "lot; fate, destiny; share, portion; rank, category; sex, class, oracular response, prophecy," from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up."
The sense evolution in Vulgar Latin is from "what is allotted to one by fate," to "fortune, condition," to "rank, class, order." Later (mid-15c.) "group, class, or category of items; kind or variety of thing; pattern, design." Out of sorts "not in usual good condition" is attested from 1620s, with literal sense of "out of stock."
surname, from Medieval Latin Clarencia, name of dukedom created 1362 for Lionel, third son of Edward III, so called from the town of Clare, Suffolk, whose heiress Lionel married. Used as a masc. proper name from late 19c. As a type of four-wheeled closed carriage, named for the Duke of Clarence, later William IV.
"magician, enchanter," c. 1400, Englished form of Latin magus "magician, learned magician," from Greek magos, a word used for the Persian learned and priestly class as portrayed in the Bible (said by ancient historians to have been originally the name of a Median tribe), from Old Persian magush "magician" (see magic and compare magi). An "archaic" word by late 19c. (OED), revived by fantasy games.
"Indian or mixed-race person of Latin America" (fem. Chola), 1851, from American Spanish (c. 1600), said to be from Nahuatl (Aztecan) xolotl "dog, mutt." Proposed derivation from Mexican city of Cholula seems too late, if this is the same word. In U.S., used of lower-class Mexican immigrants, but by 1970s the word began to be embraced in Latino gang slang in a positive sense.
tortoise-like land-dwelling turtle of North America, 1825, American English for what is called by English writers a box-tortoise (1834), from box (n.1), so called for its resemblance to a tight, closed box when the head, tail, and legs are drawn in.
a broad-meaning word used of things that move slowly or with difficulty, "of obscure etymology" [OED]. From 1620s as "handle of a pitcher," this sense probably from Scottish lugge "earflap of a cap; ear" (late 15c. and according to OED still the common word for "ear" in 19c. Scotland), which is probably from Scandinavian (compare Swedish lugg "forelock," Norwegian lugg "tuft of hair") and influenced by the verb. The connecting notion is "something that can be gripped and pulled."
Applied 19c. to mechanical objects that can be grabbed or gripped. Meaning "stupid fellow" is from 1924; that of "lout, sponger" is 1931, American English. Compare lug-nut (1869), nut closed at one end as a cap.
1962, vulgar or working class pronunciation of hoy a call or shout to attract attention (compare ahoy).