Etymology
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exclaim (v.)

"to cry out, speak with vehemence, make a loud outcry in words," 1560s, a back-formation from exclamation or else from French exclamer (16c.), from Latin exclamare "cry out loud, call out," from ex "out," perhaps here an intensive prefix (see ex-), + clamare "cry, shout, call" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout"). Spelling influenced by claim. Related: Exclaimed; exclaiming.

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hoot (v.)

"to call or shout in disapproval or scorn," c. 1600, probably related to or a variant of Middle English houten, huten "to shout, call out" (c. 1200), which is more or less imitative of the sound of the thing. First used of bird cries, especially that of the owl, mid-15c. Meaning "to laugh" is from 1926. Related: Hooted; hooting. A hoot owl (1826) is distinguished from a screech owl.

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pager (n.)

"device that emits a signal when activated by a telephone call," 1968, agent noun from page (v.1).

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optative (n.)

mid-15c., optatif, "the optative mood," in grammar, a form of a verb expressing wish or desire, from Old French optatif (15c.), from Late Latin optativus, from Latin optatus "wished, desired, longed for," past participle of optare "to choose, wish, desire" (see option). Also mid-15c. as an adjective, "expressing wish or desire by a distinct grammatical form." The general adjectival sense of "expressing or expressive of desire or wish" is by 1610s.

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adoption (n.)

mid-14c., adopcioun, "action of taking (a child) as one's own; condition of being adopted," from Old French adopcion or directly from Late Latin adoptionem (nominative adoptio) "a taking as one's child," shorter form of adoptatio, noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin adoptare "chose for oneself, take by choice, select, adopt," especially "to take into a family, adopt as a child," from ad "to" (see ad-) + optare "choose, wish, desire" (from PIE root *op- (2) "to choose;" see option (n.)).

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reclaim (v.)

early 14c., reclaimen, "call back a hawk to the glove," from Old French reclamer "to call upon, invoke; claim; seduce; to call back a hawk" (12c., Modern French réclamer) and directly from Latin reclamare "cry out against, contradict, protest, appeal," from re- "opposite, against" (see re-) + clamare "cry out" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").

"Call out; call back a hawk," hence "make tame" (mid-15c.), "subdue, reduce to obedience, make amenable to control" (late 14c.). Many Middle English senses lack an apparent notion of return or reciprocation (not unusual with Middle English re- words). Meaning "revoke" (a grant, gift, etc.) is from late 15c. That of "recall (someone) from an erring course to a proper state" is from mid-15c.

The sense of "get back by effort" might reflect influence of claim. The specific meaning "bring waste land into useful condition fit for cultivation" is attested by 1764, probably on notion of "reduce to obedience" (perhaps from the image of taming wild animals) rather than a suggestion of a return to a previous condition. Related: Reclaimed; reclaiming.

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vocation (n.)

early 15c., "spiritual calling," from Old French vocacion "call, consecration; calling, profession" (13c.) or directly from Latin vocationem (nominative vocatio), literally "a calling, a being called" from vocatus "called," past participle of vocare "to call," which is related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). Sense of "one's occupation or profession" is first attested 1550s.

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co-opt (v.)

1650s, "to select (someone) for a group or club by a vote of members," from Latin cooptare "to elect, to choose as a colleague or member of one's tribe," from assimilated form of com- "together" (see com-) + optare "choose" (see option (n.)). For some reason this defied the usual pattern of Latin-to-English adaptation, which should have yielded co-optate (which is attested from 1620s but now is rare or obsolete). Sense of "take over" is first recorded c. 1953. Related: Co-opted; co-opting.

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hight (v.)

"named, called" (archaic), from levelled past participle of Middle English highte, from Old English hatte "I am called" (passive of hatan "to call, name, command") merged with heht "called," active past tense of the same verb. Hatte was the only survival in Old English of the old Germanic synthetic passive tense. Proto-Germanic *haitanan "to call, summon," also is the source of Old Norse heita, Dutch heten, German heißen, Gothic haitan "to call, be called, command," and is perhaps from an extended form of PIE root *keie- "to set in motion," but Boutkan finds it to be of uncertain origin.

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claim (v.)

c. 1300, "to call, call out; to ask or demand by virtue of right or authority," from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain; declare," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Related: Claimed; claiming.

Meaning "to maintain as true, assert a belief or opinion" is from 1864 ("A common use, regarded by many as inelegant" - Century Dictionary, 1895); claim properly should not stray too far from its true meaning of "to demand recognition of a right." Specific sense "to make a claim" (on an insurance company) is from 1897.

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