Etymology
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caddie (n.)
1630s, "a cadet, student soldier," Scottish form of French cadet (see cadet). From 1730 as "person who runs errands;" meaning "golfer's assistant" is from 1851. A letter from Edinburgh c. 1730 describes the city's extensive and semi-organized "Cawdys, a very useful Black-Guard, who attend ... publick Places to go at Errands; and though they are Wretches, that in Rags lye upon the Stairs and in the Streets at Night, yet are they often considerably trusted .... This Corps has a kind of Captain ... presiding over them, whom they call the Constable of the Cawdys."
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caddis (n.)
also caddice, larva of the English May-fly, used for bait, 1650s, of unknown origin, perhaps a diminutive of some sense of cad. Also used of the adult stage of certain neuropterous insects.
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caddish (adj.)
"offensively ill-bred; characteristic of a cad," 1868, from cad (n.) + -ish. Related: Caddishly; caddishness.
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caddy (v.)
"act as a caddy for a golfer," 1900, from an alternative spelling of caddie (n.). Related: Caddied; caddying.
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caddy (n.)
"small box for tea," 1792, from catty (1590s), Anglo-Indian unit of weight, from Malay (Austronesian) kati, a unit of weight. The catty was adopted as a standard mid-18c. by the British in the Orient and fixed in 1770 by the East India Company at a pound and a third. Apparently the word for a measure of tea was transferred to the chest it was carried in.
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cade (n.)
"a pet or tame animal," especially a lamb, late 15c., often used in reference to young animals abandoned by their mothers and brought up by hand; of unknown origin. Meaning "spoiled or over-indulged child" is from 1877. Also as a verb, "to rear by hand or tenderly," and an adjective (late 15c.).
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cadence (v.)
"to regulate by musical measure," 1749, from cadence (n.). Related: Cadenced; cadencing.
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cadence (n.)

late 14c., "flow of rhythm in prose or verse," from French cadence, from Old Italian cadenza "conclusion of a movement in music," literally "a falling," from Vulgar Latin *cadentia, from neuter plural of Latin cadens, present participle of cadere "to fall" (from PIE root *kad- "to fall"). A doublet of chance (n.).

The notion is of a "fall" in the voice in reading aloud or speaking, as at the end of a sentence, also the rising and falling in modulation of tones in reciting. Later (1590s) extended to music, in reference to a sequence of chords expressing conclusion at the end of a phrase and resolving to the key in which the piece was written. Also the measure or beat of any rhythmic movement (c. 1600). In 16c., sometimes used literally for "an act of falling." Related: Cadential.

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cadenza (n.)
"ornamental passage near the close of a song or solo," 1780, from Italian cadenza "conclusion of a movement in music" (see cadence (n.)).
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cadet (n.)

c. 1610, "younger son or brother;" 1650s, "gentleman entering the military as a profession;" from French cadet "military student officer," noun use of adjective, "younger" (15c.), from Gascon capdet "captain, chief, youth of a noble family," from Medieval Latin capitellum, "little chief," literally "little head" (hence, "inferior head of a family"), diminutive of Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").

"The eldest son being regarded as the first head of the family, the second son the cadet, or little head" [Kitchin]. Younger sons from noble families were sent to French court to serve as officers, without rising through the ranks or attending military school, after being attached to a corps without pay and enjoying certain privileges. This gave the word its military meaning "accepted candidate for a commission who is undergoing training to become an officer." Meaning "student at a military college" is from 1775.

Via the Scottish form cadee comes caddie "a messenger boy," especially one who carries clubs for a golfer, and slang cad.

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