c. 1300, from Anglo-French turnei, Old French tornei "contest of armed men" (12c., Modern French tournoi), from tornoier "to joust, tilt" (see tourney (v.)).
1650s, "to hack, chop into small pieces," from French hacher "chop up" (14c.), from Old French hache "ax" (see hatchet). Hash browns (1926) is short for hashed browned potatoes (1886), with the -ed omitted, as in mash potatoes. The hash marks on a football field were so called by 1954, from their similarity to hash marks, armed forces slang for "service stripes on the sleeve of a military uniform" (1909), which supposedly were called that because they mark the number of years one has had free food (that is, hash (n.1)) from the Army; but perhaps there is a connection with the noun form of hatch (v.2).
kind of large ship, 1520s, from French galion "armed ship of burden," and directly from Spanish galeón "galleon, armed merchant ship," augmentative of galea, from Byzantine Greek galea "galley" (see galley) + augmentative suffix -on. Developed 15c.-16c., it was shorter, broader, and with a higher stern superstructure than the galley. In English use, especially of Spanish royal treasure-ships or the government warships that escorted private merchant ships in the South American trade.
GALLEON. The accepted term for the type of ship which the Spaniards used in 1588; that is, an armed merchantman of exceptional quality, combining the strength of the mediaeval trader with some of the finer lines and fighting features of the GALLEY. [Sir Geoffrey Callender, "Sea Passages," 1943]
Italian agumented form of galea, galeaza, led to a different 16c. ship-name in English, galliass (1540s).
"having served out one's time, having done sufficient service," c. 1600, from Latin emeritus "veteran soldier who has served his time," noun use of adjective meaning literally "that has finished work, past service," past participle of emerere "serve out, complete one's service," from assimilated form of ex "out" (see ex-) + merere "to serve, earn," from PIE root *(s)mer- (2) "to get a share of something." First used of retired professors 1794 in American English.
"a body of retainers, a number or company of persons retained in the service of someone," late 14c., from Old French retenue "group of followers, state of service," literally "that which is retained," noun use of fem. past participle of retenir "to employ, to retain, hold back" (see retain). Related: Retinular.
"to perform the duty of a priest," 1630s, from Medieval Latin officiatus, present participle of officiare "perform religious services," from Latin officium "a service" (in Medieval Latin, "church service"); see office. The earlier verb in English was simply office (mid-15c.). Related: Officiated; officiating.
c. 1300, from Old French vassalage, vasselage "the service of a vassal," from vassal (see vassal).
"that does service (to another)," c. 1300, present-participle adjective from serve (v.).