archaebacteria (n.)
1977, from archaeo- "ancient" + bacteria. Singular is archaebacterium.
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archaism (n.)
1640s, "retention of what is old and obsolete," from Modern Latin archaismus, from Greek arkhaismos, from arkhaizein "to copy the ancients" (in language, etc.); see archaic. Meaning "that which is archaic," especially "an archaic word or expression," is by 1748.
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archery (n.)
"use of the bow and arrow," c. 1400, from Anglo-French archerye, Old French archerie, from archier "archer" (see archer).
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archbishopric (n.)

Old English arcebiscoprice, from archbishop + rice "realm, dominion, province," from Proto-Germanic *rikja "rule" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule").

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archaeological (adj.)
"pertaining to archaeology," 1766, in the antiquarian sense, from archaeology + -ical. Earlier was archaeologic (1731). Related: Archaeologically.
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archangel (n.)
"an angel of the highest order," late 12c., from Old French archangel (12c.) or directly from Late Latin archangelus, from New Testament Greek arkhangelos "chief angel," from arkh- "chief, first" (see archon) + angelos (see angel). Replaced Old English heah encgel.
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masc. proper name, from Old High German Erchanbald, literally "genuine-bold," from erchan "genuine" + bald (see bold). Archie, British World War I military slang for "German anti-aircraft fire" or the guns that produce it (1915) is said in contemporary sources to be from the airmen dodging hostile fire and thinking of the refrain of a then-popular music hall song.

It's no use me denying facts, I'm henpecked, you can see!
'Twas on our wedding day my wife commenced to peck at me
The wedding breakfast over, I said, "We'll start off today
Upon our honeymoon."
Then she yelled, "What! waste time that way?"
[chorus] "Archibald, certainly not!
Get back to work at once, sir, like a shot.
When single you could waste time spooning
But lose work now for honeymooning!
Archibald, certainly not!"
[John L. St. John & Alfred Glover, "Archibald, Certainly Not"]
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archer (n.)

"one who shoots arrows from a (long) bow," late 13c., from Anglo-French archer, Old French archier "archer; bow-maker," from Late Latin arcarius, alteration of Latin arcuarius "maker of bows," from arcus "bow" (see arc (n.)). (The classical Latin word was arquites "archers;" the Greeks shunned archery as an unmanly tactic, and the Romans seem to have had little appreciation for it until their later encounters with mounted barbarian archers).

Also a 17c. name for the bishop in chess. As a type of tropical fish, 1834, from its shooting drops of water at insects. For "archer" Middle English had bowman, also scutte, from Old English scytta, also bender (also "maker of bows," a surname).

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Archaean (adj.)

"of the earliest geological age," 1872, coined by U.S. geologist and zoologist James Dwight Dana (1813-1895) from Latinized form of Greek arkhaios "ancient," from arkhē "beginning," verbal noun of arkhein "to be the first," hence "to begin" and "to rule" (see archon).

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