Etymology
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superman (n.)

1903, coined by George Bernard Shaw to translate German Übermensch, "highly evolved human being that transcends good and evil," from "Thus Spake Zarathustra" (1883-91), by Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). The German word was first used in German by Hermann Rab (1520s), and also was used by Herder and Goethe. It was Englished as overman (1895) and beyond-man (1896) before Shaw got to the modern version in his play title "Man and Superman" (1903). Application to comic strip hero is from 1938.

So was created ... Superman! champion of the oppressed, the physical marvel who had sworn to devote his existence to helping those in need! ["Action Comics," June 1, 1938]

His ability to leap tall buildings in a single bound dates from 1941; the "Action Comics" introduction is less succinct: "When maturity was reached, he discovered he could easily: Leap 1/8th of a mile; hurdle a twenty story building ..."

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supermarket (n.)
1933, American English, from super- + market (n.). The 1933 reference is in an article that says the stores themselves began to open around 1931. An early word for a "superstore" was hypermarket (1967).
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supernal (adj.)
mid-15c., "heavenly, divine," from Old French supernal "supreme" (12c.), formed from Latin supernus "situated above, that is above; celestial" (from super "above, over;" from PIE root *uper "over") as a contrast to infernal.
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supernatant (adj.)
"floating on the surface," 1660s, from Latin supernatantem (nominative supernatans), present participle of supernatare "to swim above," from super "above, over" (see super-) + natare "to swim," frequentative of nare "to swim" (from PIE root *sna- "to swim"). Related: Supernatation (1620s).
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supernatural (adj.)

early 15c. "of or given by God," from Medieval Latin supernaturalis "above or beyond nature, divine," from Latin super "above" (see super-) + natura "nature" (see nature (n.)). Originally with more of a religious sense, "of or given by God, divine; heavenly;" association with ghosts, etc., has predominated since 19c. Related: Supernaturalism.

That is supernatural, whatever it be, that is either not in the chain of natural cause and effect, or which acts on the chain of cause and effect, in nature, from without the chain. [Horace Bushnell, "Nature and the Supernatural," 1858]
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supernatural (n.)
1729, "a supernatural being," from supernatural (adj.). From 1830 as "that which is above or beyond the established course of nature."
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supernaturally (adv.)
c. 1500, "from God or Heaven," from supernatural (adj.) + -ly (2).
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supernumerary (adj.)
"exceeding a stated number," c. 1600, from Late Latin supernumarius "excess, counted in over" (of soldiers added to a full legion), from Latin super numerum "beyond the number," from super "beyond, over" (see super-) + numerum, accusative of numerus "number" (see number (n.)). As a noun from 1630s.
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