Etymology
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toolbar (n.)

1960 as a frame fitted to a tractor to hold tools; from tool (n.) + bar (n.1). Computer sense is attested from 1991.

Among 100-odd new features in Excel 3.0 is a row of "buttons" on the screen called the Toolbar. Located under the pull-down menus, the Toolbar provides rapid access to frequently used commands. [Popular Science, April 1991.]
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cadre (n.)

"permanently organized framework of a military unit" (the officers, etc., as opposed to the rank-and-file), 1851; earlier "framework, scheme" (1830); from French cadre, literally "a frame of a picture" (16c.), so, "a detachment forming the skeleton of a regiment," from Italian quadro, from Latin quadrum "a square," which related to quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four"). The communist sense of "group or cell of workers trained to promote the interests of the Party" is from 1930.

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cot (n.1)

"small, light bed," 1630s, from Hindi khat "couch, hammock," from Sanskrit khatva, probably from a Dravidian source (compare Tamil kattil "bedstead"). Sense extended to "canvas hammock bed on shipboard" (by 1769), then "portable bed of canvas or similar material, fastened to a light frame, capable of folding up" (1854). Meaning "small bed or crib for a child" is by 1818.

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pulley (n.)

simple machine consisting of a wheel with a grooved rim for carrying a rope or other line and turning in a frame, used for raising a weight, late 13c., puli, from Old French polie, pulie "pulley, windlass" (12c.) and directly from Medieval Latin poliva, puliva, which according to Barnhart and Klein is probably from Medieval Greek *polidia, plural of *polidion "little pivot," diminutive of Greek polos "pivot, axis" (see pole (n.2)). As a verb from 1590s.

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entertain (v.)
Origin and meaning of entertain

late 15c., "to keep up, maintain, to keep (someone) in a certain frame of mind," from Old French entretenir "hold together, stick together, support" (12c.), from entre- "among" (from Latin inter; see inter-) + tenir "to hold" (from Latin tenere, from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

Sense of "have a guest" is late 15c.; that of "gratify, amuse" is 1620s. Meaning "to allow (something) to consideration, take into the mind" (of opinions, notions, etc.) is 1610s. Related: Entertained; entertaining.

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sash (n.2)

framed part of a window, into which the panes are fitted, 1680s, sashes, a mangled Englishing of French châssis "frame" of a window or door (see chassis).

The word was mistaken as a plural and further mangled by loss of the -s by 1704. Sash-door, one having panes of glass to admit light, is by 1726; sash-weight, attached by cords to either side of a sash to balance it and make it easier to raise and lower, is attested by 1737.

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aplenty (adj.)

also a-plenty, "in abundance," by 1829, colloquial when used after the noun, from a- (1) + plenty (n.).

Two square feet, or four at most, in one corner of the frame, will give you mustard and cress a plenty for salads, if you take care to make repeated sowings in proper time. [William Cobbett, "The English Gardener," 1829]

But perhaps older, depending how some uses of aplenty or a plenty are read.

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dumps (n.)

"low spirits; dull, gloomy state of mind," 1520s, plural of dumpe "a fit of musing," of uncertain origin, possibly from Dutch domp "haze, mist," from Middle Dutch damp "vapor" (see damp (n.)). Compare vapors under vapor.

The application of this term to an affection of the mind is a part of the medical theory which attributed all disorders of the frame to a humour falling on the part affected, and regarded mental disorders especially as produced by a vapour rising from the stomach into the brain. [Hensleigh Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859]
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pillory (n.)

"frame of wood erected on a post or pole with holes into which were put the head and hands of an offender who was thus exposed for public derision and abuse," mid-14c., pillorie (attested in Anglo-Latin from late 12c., in surnames from mid-13c.), from Old French pilori "pillory" (mid-12c.), which is related to Medieval Latin pilloria, but all are of uncertain origin. Perhaps a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier" (see pillar), but OED finds this proposed derivation "phonologically unsuitable."

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from (prep., adv.)

Old English fram, preposition denoting departure or movement away in time or space, from Proto-Germanic *fra "forward, away from" (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic fram "from, away," Old Norse fra "from," fram "forward"), from PIE *pro-mo-, suffixed form of *pro (see pro-), extended form of root *per- (1) "forward." The Germanic sense of "moving away" apparently evolved from the notion of "forward motion." It is related to Old English fram "forward; bold; strong," and fremian "promote, accomplish" (see frame (v.)).

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