fish of the herring family, 1540s, earlier pilcher (1520s), a word of unknown origin, with unetymological -d, perhaps by influence of words in -ard. Century Dictionary suggests Celtic origin, as the fish appear every July in great numbers on the Cornish coast; OED says the Irish word for them is from the English word.
1650s (adj.), in grammar, "subjoined and accentually dependent," said of a word or particle which in regard to accent forms a part of a preceding word and is treated as if one with it; 1660s (n.), "a word accentually connected with a preceding word;" from Late Latin encliticus, from Greek enklitikos "throwing its accent back," literally "leaning on," from verbal adjectival stem of enklinein "to bend, lean on," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + klinein "to lean," from PIE root *klei- "to lean."
1580s, "the divine Word, second person of the Christian Trinity," from Greek logos "word, speech, statement, discourse," also "a computation, account," also "reason, judgment, understanding," from PIE *log-o-, suffixed form of root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak," on notion of "to pick out words." The Greek word was used by Neo-Platonists in metaphysical and theological senses involving notions of both "reason" and "word" and subsequently picked up by New Testament writers.
slang word meaning "dolt," 1855, originally (16c.) "donkey;" of unknown origin, perhaps originally a personal name. In U.S., "black person," from 1856, perhaps a different word.
"word used instead of a noun to avoid repetition of it," mid-15c., from Old French pronon, pronom, and directly from Latin pronomen "word standing in place of a noun," from pro, here meaning "in place of," + nomen "name, noun" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). The Latin word is a loan-translation of Greek antonymia. The form of the English and French words was altered to conform with noun.