Etymology
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Guinevere 

fem. proper name, also Guiniver, Guinever, Gwiniver; the name is Welsh, said to be from Gwenhwyvar, said to mean literally "white-cheeked," but "Magic Fairy" also has been proposed.

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Monmouth 

town in Wales, so called from its situation where the River Monnow flows into the larger Wye. The Welsh name, Trefynwy, "homestead on the Mynwy," preserves the native form of the name.

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caber (n.)
pole used in housebuilding, especially as an object tossed in the Highland games, 1510s, from Gaelic cabar "pole, spar," cognate with Irish cabar "lath," Welsh ceibr "beam, rafter."
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claymore (n.)

1749, "two-edged, heavy broadsword of ancient Scottish Highlanders," from Gaelic claidheamh mor "great sword," from claidheb "sword" (compare Welsh cleddyf), which is possibly from a PIE root *kel- "to strike" (see holt) + mor "great" (compare Welsh mawr; see more).

An antiquarian word made familiar again by Scott's novels. It was sometimes applied inaccurately to 16c.-18c. one-handed basket-hilted broad swords. Modern military application to a type of pellet-scattering anti-personnel mine is first attested 1962.

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Muriel 
fem. proper name, probably Celtic and meaning literally "sea bright;" compare Welsh Meriel, Meryl, Irish Muirgheal, earlier Muirgel, from muir "sea" (from PIE root *mori- "body of water") + geal "bright."
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woe (n.)
late 12c., from the interjection, Old English wa!, a common exclamation of lament in many languages (compare Latin , Greek oa, German weh, Lettish wai, Old Irish fe, Welsh gwae, Armenian vay).
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Sabrina 

fem. proper name, personified as a nymph by Milton in "Comus" (1634). The name is from a Welsh tale of a maiden drowned in the river Severn by her stepmother; the legend is found in Geoffrey of Monmouth and Giraldus Cambrensis. It appears to be the Romanized form of the name of the River Severn (Welsh Hafren, Habren), which is Celtic and of unknown origin; it perhaps means "boundary." Sabrina neckline is from the 1954 film "Sabrina" starring Audrey Hepburn. Sabrina-work (1871) was a millinery term for a variety of application embroidery.

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gladiator (n.)

mid-15c., "Roman swordsman," from Latin gladiator (fem. gladiatrix) "fighter in the public games; swordsman," from gladius "sword" (there is no verb *gladiare), which probably is from Gaulish (compare Welsh cleddyf, Cornish clethe, Breton kleze "sword;" see claymore). Old Irish claideb is from Welsh.

The close connection with Celtic words for 'sword', together with the imperfect match of initial consonants, and the semantic field of weaponry, suggests that Latin borrowed a form *gladio- or *kladio- (a hypothetical variant of attested British Celtic *kladimo- 'sword') from [Proto-Celtic] or from a third language. [de Vaan]
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Bernicia 
Anglo-Saxon kingdom in northernmost England, founded by mid-6c., eventually merged into Northumbria; the name evidently is a survival of a pre-invasion Celtic name, perhaps that represented by the Welsh Bryneich. Related: Berenician
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flummery (n.)
1620s, a type of coagulated food, from Welsh llymru "sour oatmeal jelly boiled with the husks," of uncertain origin. Later of a sweet dish in cookery (1747). Figurative use, of flattery, empty talk, is from 1740s.
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