"thing of little value," 1815, earlier "inferior or worn-out horse" (1778, though OED regards this earlier appearance as "prob. accidental"), a word of uncertain origin, perhaps altered from slang rep "man of loose character; vicious, reckless and worthless person" (1747), which itself is of obscure origin, perhaps short for reprobate (n.). But also compare demi-rep "woman of dubious virtue" (1749, the second element said to be short for reputation).
late 14c., "make or declare sacred by certain ceremonies or rites," from Latin consecratus, past participle of consecrare "to make holy, devote," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + sacrare "to make or declare sacred" (see sacred). Meaning "to devote or dedicate from profound feeling" is from 1550s. Related: Consecrated; consecrating.
Ah, what avails the sceptred race!
Ah, what the form divine!
What every virtue, every grace!
Rose Aylmer, all were thine.
Rose Aylmer, whom these wakeful eyes
May weep, but never see,
A night of memories and sighs
I consecrate to thee.
[Walter Savage Landor]
c. 1300, "to call, call out; to ask or demand by virtue of right or authority," from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain; declare," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Related: Claimed; claiming.
Meaning "to maintain as true, assert a belief or opinion" is from 1864 ("A common use, regarded by many as inelegant" - Century Dictionary, 1895); claim properly should not stray too far from its true meaning of "to demand recognition of a right." Specific sense "to make a claim" (on an insurance company) is from 1897.
late 14c., "follower of Epicurus," a Latinized form of Greek Epicouros (341-270 B.C.E.), Athenian philosopher who taught that pleasure is the highest good and identified virtue as the greatest pleasure; the first lesson recalled, the second forgotten, and the name used pejoratively for "one who gives himself up to sensual pleasure" (1560s), especially "glutton, sybarite" (1774). Epicurus's school was opposed by the stoics, who first gave his name a reproachful sense. Non-pejorative meaning "one who cultivates refined taste in food and drink" is from 1580s.
1806, in reference to the Cyrenaic school of philosophy that deals with the ethics of pleasure; with -ist + Greek hēdone "pleasure, delight, enjoyment; a pleasure, a delight," which is related to hēdys "sweet" and cognate with Latin suavis, from PIE *swad-ona, suffixed form of root *swad- "sweet, pleasant" (see sweet (adj.)). Meaning "one who regards pleasure as the chief goal of life" is from 1854. A hedonist is properly the follower of any ethical system in which some sort of pleasure ranks as the highest good. The Epicurean identifies this pleasure with the practice of virtue.
late 13c., demaunde, "a question," from Old French demande, from demander "to request; to demand" (see demand (v.)). Meaning "a request, a claim, an asking for by virtue of a right or supposed right to the thing sought," also "that which is demanded or required, exaction as a tribute or concession," without reference to right, is from c. 1300.
In the political economy sense of "desire to purchase and possess, coupled with the means to do so" (correlating to supply) it is attested from 1776 in Adam Smith. Meaning "state of being sought after" (especially by consumers) is from 1711. In demand "much sought after" is attested by 1825; on demand "on being requested" is from 1690s.
c. 1200, "the practice or virtue of submission to a higher power or authority;" late 14c., "dutiful compliance with a command or law," from Old French obedience "obedience, submission" (12c.), from Latin oboedientia "obedience," abstract noun from oboedientem (nominative oboediens) "obedient, compliant," present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). In reference to dog training from 1930.
It has been a constant remark, that free countries have ever paid the heaviest taxes. The obedience of a free people to general laws, however hard they bear, is ever more perfect than that of slaves to the arbitrary will of a prince. [Alexander Hamilton to James Duane, Sept. 3, 1780]
"the doctrine that one person can exercise influence over the will and nervous system of another and produce certain phenomena by virtue of a supposed emanation called animal magnetism," 1798, from French mesmérisme, named for Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), Austrian physician who developed a theory of animal magnetism and a mysterious body fluid which allows one person to hypnotize another and propounded it in 1778 in Paris. The word, if still used is practically synonymous with hypnotism or artificial somnambulism. Another similar word for the same effect was braidism. An old term for "hypnotic suggestion" was mesmeric promise. Related: Mesmerist