Old English trog "wooden vessel, tray, hollow vessel, canoe," from Proto-Germanic *trugaz (source also of Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old Norse trog, Middle Dutch troch, Dutch trog, Old High German troc, German trog), from PIE *dru-ko-, from root *deru- "be firm, solid, steadfast," with specialized senses "wood, tree" and derivatives referring to objects made of wood. Originally pronounced in English with a hard -gh- (as in Scottish loch); pronunciation shifted to "-ff," but spelling remained.
"vessel used for burning incense before an altar," mid-13c., from Old French censier, a shortened form of encensier, from encens "incense" (see incense (n.)).
in anatomy, "a tube, duct, or conduit for conveying blood, lymph, semen, etc.," plural vasa, Latin, literally "vessel." Vas deferens (plural vasa defferentia) is from 1570s.
1814 in the cookery sense, agent noun from steam (v.). From 1825 as "a vessel propelled by steam," hence steamer trunk (1885), one that carries the essentials for a voyage.