Etymology
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citation (n.)

c. 1300, "summons, written notice to appear," from Old French citation or directly from Latin citationem (nominative citatio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite" (see cite).

Meaning "passage cited, quotation" is from 1540s; meaning "act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc." is from 1650s; in law, especially "a reference to decided cases or statutes." From 1918 as "a mention in an official dispatch."

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dissuasion (n.)

early 15c., dissuasioun, "advice or exhortation in opposition to something," from Old French dissuasion (14c.) and directly from Latin dissuasionem (nominative dissuasio) "an advice to the contrary," noun of action from past-participle stem of dissuadere "to advise against, oppose by argument," from dis- "off, against" (see dis-) + suadere "to urge, incite, promote, advise, persuade," literally "recommend as good" (related to suavis "sweet"), from PIE root *swād- "sweet, pleasant" (see sweet (adj.)).

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prompt (v.)

mid-14c., prompten, "to incite to action, urge," from the adjective or from Latin promptus, past participle of promere "to bring forth," from pro "forward" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + emere "to take" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").

The meaning "coach (someone), assist (a learner or speaker) by suggesting something forgotten or imperfectly learned or known" is from early 15c.; specifically in the theatrical sense of "to assist a speaker with lines" by 1670s. Related: Prompted; prompting.

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adage (n.)

"brief, familiar proverb," 1540s, French adage (16c.), from Latin adagium "adage, proverb," apparently a collateral form of adagio, from ad "to" (see ad-) + *agi-, root of aio "I say," which is perhaps cognate with Armenian ar-ac "proverb," asem "to say." But some find this unlikely and suggest the second element might be related to agein "set in motion, drive, urge" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Related: Adagial.

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provoke (v.)

late 14c., provoken, in medicine, "to induce" (sleep, vomiting, etc.), "to stimulate" (appetite), from Old French provoker, provochier (12c., Modern French provoquer) and directly from Latin provocare "call forth, challenge," from pro "forth" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + vocare "to call," which is related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). Related: Provoked; provoking. The general sense of "urge, incite, stimulate to action" is from c. 1400.

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cite (v.)

mid-15c., "to summon, call upon officially," from Old French citer "to summon" (14c.), from Latin citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite," frequentative of ciere "to move, set in motion, stir, rouse, call, invite" from PIE root *keie- "to set in motion, to move to and fro."

Sense of "call forth a passage of writing, quote the words of another" is first attested 1530s. Related: Cited; citing.

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further (v.)
Old English fyrðran, fyrðrian "to impel, urge on; advance, promote, benefit;" see further (adv.). Compare Middle Low German vorderen, Old High German furdiran, German fördern, probably from their respective adjectives via the notion in phrases such as Old English don furðor "to promote." Related: Furthered; furthering. After the further/farther split, this sense also continued in a shadow verb farther (v.), attested from 16c. but apparently dying out 19c.
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seven-year itch (n.)
1899, American English, some sort of skin condition (sometimes identified with poison ivy infection) that either lasts seven years or returns every seven years. Jocular use for "urge to stray from marital fidelity" is attested from 1952, as the title of the Broadway play (made into a film, 1955) by George Axelrod (1922-2003), in which the lead male character reads an article describing the high number of men have extra-marital affairs after seven years of marriage.
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comfort (v.)

late 13c., conforten "to cheer up, console, soothe when in grief or trouble," from Old French conforter "to comfort, to solace; to help, strengthen," from Late Latin confortare "to strengthen much" (used in Vulgate), from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + fortis "strong" (see fort).

The change of -n- to -m- began in English 14c. In Middle English also "give or add strength to" (c. 1300); "encourage, urge, exhort" (c. 1300). Related: Comforted; comforting.

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abet (v.)
late 14c., "urge on, incite" (implied in abetting), from Old French abeter "to bait, to harass with dogs," literally "to cause to bite," from a- "to" (see ad-) + beter "to bait." This verb is probably from Frankish or some other Germanic source (perhaps Low Franconian betan "incite," or Old Norse beita "cause to bite"); ultimately from Proto-Germanic *baitjan, from PIE root *bheid- "to split," with derivatives in Germanic referring to biting. Sense of "encourage by aid or approval" is from 1779. Related: Abetted; abetting.
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