c. 1300, "summons, written notice to appear," from Old French citation or directly from Latin citationem (nominative citatio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite" (see cite).
Meaning "passage cited, quotation" is from 1540s; meaning "act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc." is from 1650s; in law, especially "a reference to decided cases or statutes." From 1918 as "a mention in an official dispatch."
early 15c., dissuasioun, "advice or exhortation in opposition to something," from Old French dissuasion (14c.) and directly from Latin dissuasionem (nominative dissuasio) "an advice to the contrary," noun of action from past-participle stem of dissuadere "to advise against, oppose by argument," from dis- "off, against" (see dis-) + suadere "to urge, incite, promote, advise, persuade," literally "recommend as good" (related to suavis "sweet"), from PIE root *swād- "sweet, pleasant" (see sweet (adj.)).
mid-14c., prompten, "to incite to action, urge," from the adjective or from Latin promptus, past participle of promere "to bring forth," from pro "forward" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + emere "to take" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").
The meaning "coach (someone), assist (a learner or speaker) by suggesting something forgotten or imperfectly learned or known" is from early 15c.; specifically in the theatrical sense of "to assist a speaker with lines" by 1670s. Related: Prompted; prompting.
"brief, familiar proverb," 1540s, French adage (16c.), from Latin adagium "adage, proverb," apparently a collateral form of adagio, from ad "to" (see ad-) + *agi-, root of aio "I say," which is perhaps cognate with Armenian ar-ac "proverb," asem "to say." But some find this unlikely and suggest the second element might be related to agein "set in motion, drive, urge" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). Related: Adagial.
late 14c., provoken, in medicine, "to induce" (sleep, vomiting, etc.), "to stimulate" (appetite), from Old French provoker, provochier (12c., Modern French provoquer) and directly from Latin provocare "call forth, challenge," from pro "forth" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + vocare "to call," which is related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). Related: Provoked; provoking. The general sense of "urge, incite, stimulate to action" is from c. 1400.
mid-15c., "to summon, call upon officially," from Old French citer "to summon" (14c.), from Latin citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite," frequentative of ciere "to move, set in motion, stir, rouse, call, invite" from PIE root *keie- "to set in motion, to move to and fro."
Sense of "call forth a passage of writing, quote the words of another" is first attested 1530s. Related: Cited; citing.
late 13c., conforten "to cheer up, console, soothe when in grief or trouble," from Old French conforter "to comfort, to solace; to help, strengthen," from Late Latin confortare "to strengthen much" (used in Vulgate), from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + fortis "strong" (see fort).
The change of -n- to -m- began in English 14c. In Middle English also "give or add strength to" (c. 1300); "encourage, urge, exhort" (c. 1300). Related: Comforted; comforting.