Etymology
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Doppler 

1871, in reference to Christian Doppler (1803-1853), Austrian scientist, who in 1842 explained the effect of relative motion on waves (originally to explain color changes in binary stars); proved by musicians performing on a moving train. Doppler shift (1955) is the change of frequency resulting from the Doppler effect (1894). The surname is literally "Gambler."

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pinwheel (n.)

also pin-wheel, 1690s, "a wheel in the striking train of a clock in which pins are fixed to lift the hammer," from pin (n.) + wheel (n.). The fireworks sense of "long paper case filled with a combustible composition and wound spirally about a disk so that, when supported vertically and lit, it revolves in a wheel of fire" is from 1869.

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express (adj.)
late 14c., "stated explicitly, not implied, clearly made known" from Old French espres, expres (13c.), from Latin expressus "clearly presented, distinct, articulated precisely," past participle of exprimere (see express (v.1)). Also late 14c. as an adverb, "specially, on purpose;" it also doubled as an adverb in Old French. An express train (1841) originally was one that ran to a certain station.
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corral (n.)

1580s, "pen or enclosure for horses or cattle," from Spanish corral, from corro "ring," Portuguese curral, a word of uncertain origin. Perhaps ultimately African, or from Vulgar Latin *currale "enclosure for vehicles," from Latin currus "two-wheeled vehicle," from currere "to run," from PIE root *kers- "to run." In U.S. history, "wide circle of the wagons of an ox- or mule-train formed for protection at night by emigrants crossing the plains" (1848).

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ditch (v.)

late 14c., "surround with a ditch; dig a ditch or ditches in;" from ditch (n.). Meaning "to throw into a ditch" is from 1816, later especially "to throw a train off the tracks," hence the slang sense of "abandon, discard (as if throwing into a ditch)," first recorded 1899 in American English, and in reference to aircraft "to bring down into the sea," by 1941. The last might have been from or reinforced by the use of the ditch in naval slang for "the sea" (1922). Related: Ditched; ditching.

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menial (adj.)
Origin and meaning of menial

late 14c., "pertaining to a household," from Anglo-French meignial, from Old French mesnie "household," earlier mesnede, from Vulgar Latin *mansionata, from Latin mansionem "dwelling" (see mansion). Compare Middle English meine "a household, household servants" (c. 1300; also "chessmen"), from Anglo-French meine, Old French maisniee. From early 15c. as "belonging to a retinue or train of servants." Sense of "lowly, humble, servile, suited to a servant" is recorded by 1670s.

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muumuu (n.)

also muu-muu, "loose-fitting dress, usually of bright colors and patterns," 1923, from Hawaiian mu'u mu'u, literally "cut off," name given to the local adaptation of the dresses given to island women by the wives of early 19c. Christian missionaries "in the early days when a few flowers sufficed for a garment" [Don Blanding, "Hula Moons," 1930]. So called because the native style hangs from the shoulder and omits the high neck and the train.

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cavalcade (n.)

"a procession, a train of persons on horseback or in carriages," 1640s, via French cavalcade (15c.), from Italian cavalcata, from cavalcare "to ride on horseback," from Vulgar Latin *caballicare (also source of Spanish cabalgada, Portuguese cavalgata), from Latin caballus (see cavalier (n.)).

Literally, "a procession on horseback;" general sense of "a procession" of any sort is from 1660s; in 20c. -cade came to be regarded as a suffix and rode off on its own to form motorcade (1909), etc. The word's earliest use in English was in the now-obsolete sense "a horseback ride" (1590s).

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accommodation (n.)

c. 1600, "that which supplies a want or need," from French accommodation, from Latin accommodationem (nominative accommodatio) "an adjustment," noun of action from past-participle stem of accommodare "make fit; make fit for" (see accommodate).

Meaning "appliance, anything which affords aid" is from 1610s; that of "act of accommodating" is from 1640s. Meaning "arrangement of a dispute" is from 1640s. An accommodation train (1838) was one making all stops (as opposed to an expresss); it was used earlier of stages (1811).

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shuttle (n.)
Old English scytel "a dart, arrow," from Proto-Germanic *skutilaz (source also of Old Norse skutill "harpoon"),from PIE root *skeud- "to shoot, chase, throw."

The original sense in English is obsolete; the weaving instrument so called (mid-14c.) from being "shot" across the threads. Sense of "train that runs back and forth" is first recorded 1895, from image of the weaver's instrument's back-and-forth movement over the warp; extended to aircraft 1942, to spacecraft 1969. In some other languages, the weaving instrument takes its name from its resemblance to a boat (Latin navicula, French navette, German weberschiff).
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