Etymology
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analogize (v.)
"explain by analogy, exhibit resemblances between," 1650s, from analogy + -ize, or else from French analogiser (17c.). Greek analogizesthai "to reckon, sum up, calculate, consider" suits the form but not the sense. Related: Analogized; analogizing.
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resume (n.)

also résumé, 1804, "a summary, summing up, recapitulation," from French résumé, noun use of past participle of resumer "to sum up," from Latin resumere "take again, take up again" (see resume (v.)). Meaning "biographical summary of a person's career" is 1940s.

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-some (1)

word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or adjectives (and sometimes verbs) and meaning "tending to; causing; to a considerable degree," from Old English -sum, identical with some, from PIE root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with." Cognate with Old Frisian -sum, German -sam, Old Norse -samr; also related to same. "It usually indicates the possession of a considerable degree of the quality named: as mettlesome, full of mettle or spirit; gladsome, very glad or joyous" [Century Dictionary]. For the -some used with numbers (twosome, foursome, etc.), see -some (2).

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sixpence (n.)
late 14c., "sum of six pennies," from six + pence. As a specific British coin, from 1590s. Sixpenny (adj.) had a figurative sense "paltry, cheap, petty, worthless" by 1560s; sixpenny nails (early 15c.) cost so much per hundred.
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remittance (n.)

1705, "act of transmitting (money, etc.) to another place; sum of money sent;" see remit (v.) + -ance. In the general noun sense of "a remitting," remitment (1610s of offenses; 1670s of money sent); remittal (1590s); remitting (late 15c., in law), and remit (early 15c.) have been used.

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fine (n.)
c. 1200, "termination, end; end of life," from Old French fin "end, limit, boundary; death; fee, payment, finance, money" (10c.), from Latin finis "end" (see finish (v.)), in Medieval Latin also "payment in settlement, fine or tax."

Modern meaning "exaction of money payment for an offense or dereliction" is via sense of "sum of money paid for exemption from punishment or to compensate for injury" (mid-14c., from the same sense in Anglo-French, late 13c.) and from phrases such as to make fine "make one's peace, settle a matter" (c. 1300). Meaning "sum of money imposed as penalty for some offense" is first recorded 1520s.
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rhinology (n.)

"sum of scientific knowledge concerning the nose" [Century Dictionary]; by 1838, but as "science of divining characters by the dimensions of the nose," from rhino- "nose" + -logy "study of." As a branch of medicine concerned with nasal and sinus problems, by 1874. Related: Rhinological; rhinologist.

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pennyfarthing (adj.)

also penny farthing, penny-farthing, "ineffective," 1887, from penny + farthing, the two together making but a small sum. The noun, in reference to the kind of bicycle with a small wheel in back and a big one in front (so called from the notion of different size coins) is attested by 1920.

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talent (n.)

late 13c., "inclination, disposition, will, desire," from Old French talent (12c.), from Medieval Latin talenta, plural of talentum "inclination, leaning, will, desire" (11c.), in classical Latin "balance, weight; sum of money," from Greek talanton "a balance, pair of scales," hence "weight, definite weight, anything weighed," and in later times sum of money," from PIE *tele- "to lift, support, weigh," "with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence money and payment" [Watkins]; see extol.

An ancient denomination of weight, originally Babylonian (though the name is Greek), and varying widely in value among different peoples and at different times. [Century Dictionary]

According to Liddell & Scott, as a monetary sum, considered to consist of 6,000 drachmae, or, in Attica, 57.75 lbs. of silver. Also borrowed in other Germanic languages and Celtic. Attested in Old English as talente). The Medieval Latin and common Romanic sense developed from figurative use of the word in the sense of "money." Meaning "special natural ability, aptitude, gift committed to one for use and improvement" developed by mid-15c., in part perhaps from figurative sense "wealth," but mostly from the parable of the talents in Matthew xxv.14-30. Meaning "persons of ability collectively" is from 1856.

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caput (n.)

"head," in various senses in anatomy, etc., from Latin caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person; summit; capital city; origin, source, spring," figuratively "life, physical life;" in writing "a division, paragraph;" of money, "the principal sum" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").

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