"paralysis of both arms and legs," 1895, a medical hybrid coined from Latin-based quadri- "four" + -plegia, as in paraplegia, which is ultimately from Greek plege "stroke," from root of plēssein "to strike" (from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike"). A correct, all-Greek formation would be *tetraplegia.
1540s, "a blow, stroke," from swoop (v.). Meaning "the sudden pouncing of a rapacious bird on its prey" is 1605, from Shakespeare:
Oh, Hell-Kite! All? What, All my pretty Chickens, and their Damme, At one fell swoope? ["Macbeth," IV.iii.219]
"piece of turf or sod with the grass growing on it," used for roofing material, etc., 1530s, Scottish, of unknown origin. Also divet, diffat, devot, etc. The golfing sense "slice of turf cut out by the club in playing a stroke" is by 1884.
c. 1400, "a blow, stroke," perhaps originally imitative of the sound. Meaning "light tap with hand" is from c. 1804. Sense of "that which is formed by patting" (as in pat of butter) is 1754, probably from the verb. Pat on the back in the figurative sense "gesture or expression of encouragement, sympathy, etc." is attested by 1804.