late 14c. (implied in suppressing) "be burdensome;" 1520s as "put down by force or authority," from Latin suppressus, past participle of supprimere "press down, stop, hold back, check, stifle," from assimilated form of sub "below, under" (see sub-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike"). Sense of "prevent or prohibit the circulation of" is from 1550s of publications; medical use from 1620s. Related: Suppressed; suppressing.
This became Middle English blindfellen "to strike blind," also "to cover (the eyes) to block vision" (c. 1200). This was most common in the past-participle, blindfelled, blindfeld," whence the -d was, in the 15th c., erroneously admitted to the stem of the vb." [OED]. It was further altered early 16c. by similarity to fold, from the notion of "folding" a band of cloth over the eyes. Related: Blindfolded; blindfolding.
"sudden fit of paralysis and dizziness," late 14c., from Old French apoplexie or directly from Late Latin apoplexia, from Greek apoplexia, from apoplektos "disabled by a stroke, struck dumb," verbal adjective from apoplēssein "to strike down and incapacitate," from apo "off" (see apo-), in this case perhaps an intensive prefix, + plēssein "to hit" (from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike;" source also of plague, which also has a root sense of "stricken"). The Latin translation, sideratio, means "disease caused by a constellation."
also partisan, "long-handled cutting weapon used in England 14c.-16c.," 1550s, from Italian partesana, partigiana, a word of uncertain origin. The Old French form of the word, pertuisane, as if from pertuiser "make full of holes," suggests an ultimate source in Latin pertusus "bored through," past participle of pertundere, but this might be French folk-etymology.
CITIZENS: Clubs, bills, and partisans! Strike! Beat them down!
Down with the Capulets! Down with the Montagues!
["Romeo and Juliet," Act I, scene I]
The word was revived somewhat in 19c. by Scott and other antiquarian writers.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut, strike, stamp."
It forms all or part of: account; amputate; amputation; anapest; berate; compute; count (v.); depute; deputy; dispute; impute; pave; pavement; pit (n.1) "hole, cavity;" putative; rate (v.1) "to scold;" reputation; repute.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin pavire "to beat, ram, tread down," putare "to prune;" Greek paiein "to strike;" Lithuanian pjauti "to cut," pjūklas "saw."
"a breaking asunder, a violent disruption," 1829, from Latinized form of Greek kataklasm "breakage," from kata "down" (see cata-) + klan,klaein "to break," which is perhaps from PIE *kla-, variant of root *kel- "to strike" (see holt), but more likely of uncertain origin [Beekes]. Related: Cataclastic, in geology, in reference to a structural character due to intense crushing, 1885.
mid-14c., oppressioun, "cruel or unjust use of power or authority," from Old French opression (12c.), from Latin oppressionem (nominative oppressio) "a pressing down; violence, oppression," noun of action from past-participle stem of opprimere "press against, press together, press down;" figuratively "crush, put down, subdue, prosecute relentlessly" (in Late Latin "to rape"), from assimilated form of ob"against" (see ob-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike").
Meaning "action of weighing on someone's mind or spirits" is from late 14c. Sense of "whatever oppresses or causes hardship" is from late 14c. In Middle English also "rape."
"to strike repeatedly" (with something), c. 1500, a word of unknown origin; according to one old theory it is perhaps from early 13c. pelten "to strike," a variant of pilten "to thrust, strike," from an unrecorded Old English *pyltan, from Medieval Latin *pultiare, from Latin pultare "to beat, knock, strike," or [Watkins] pellere "to push, drive, strike" (from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive"). OED doubts this. Or it might be from Old French peloter "to strike with a ball," from pelote "ball" (see pellet (n.)) [Klein].
From 1680s as "to go on throwing (missiles) with intent to strike." The meaning "proceed rapidly and without intermission" (1831) is from the notion of beating the ground with rapid steps. Related: Pelted; pelting.