late 14c., "jaw, jawbone," from Late Latin mandibula "jaw," from Latin mandere "to chew," which is perhaps from PIE root *mendh- "to chew" (source also of Greek mastax "the mouth, that with which one chews; morsel, that which is chewed," masasthai "to chew," mastikhan "to gnash the teeth"). But de Vaan suggests a semantic development from a PIE root meaning "to stir, whirl," source also of Sanskrit manthanti "to whirl round, rub," Lithuanian mesti "to mix," Old Church Slavonic mesti, Russian mjasti "to trouble, disturb." Of insect mouth parts from 1826.
Political sense is first recorded 1734, and negative overtones began with its association with Irish patriots such as Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847). Historically, in American English, often with outside and referring to people who stir up a supposedly contented class or race. Latin agitator meant "a driver, a charioteer."
[A]pplied to succession when divided so as to give the representatives belonging to one branch the share only that their head or ancestor would have taken had he survived. Thus, in a gift to A and the children of B, if they are to take per capita, each child will have a share equal to that of A; but if they are to take per stirpes, A will take one half and the other half will be divided among the children of B. [Century Dictionary]
plural of stirps, Latin, literally "stem, stalk, trunk of a plant," figuratively "scion, offspring, descendant; source, origin, foundation, beginning," a word of uncertain origin. Hence stirpiculture "breeding of special stocks or strains."
c. 1300, blenden, "to mix in such a way as to become inextinguishable, mingle, stir up a liquid," in northern writers, from or akin to rare Old English blandan "to mix" (Mercian blondan) or Old Norse blanda "to mix," or a combination of the two; from Proto-Germanic *blandan "to mix," which comes via a notion of "to make cloudy" from an extended Germanic form of the PIE root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn."
Compare Old Saxon and Old High German blantan, Gothic blandan, Middle High German blenden "to mix;" German Blendling "bastard, mongrel," and, outside Germanic, Lithuanian blandus "troubled, turbid, thick;" Old Church Slavonic blesti "to go astray." Figurative sense of "mingle closely" is from early 14c. Related: Blended; blending.
also keiə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to set in motion."
It might form all or part of: behest; cinema; cinematography; citation; cite; excite; hest; hight; hyperkinetic; incite; kinase; kinematics; kinesics; kinesiology; kinesis; kinesthesia; kinesthetic; kinetic; kineto-; kino-; oscitant; recital; recitation; recite; resuscitate; solicit; solicitous; suscitate; telekinesis.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit cyavate "stirs himself, goes;" Greek kinein "to move, set in motion; change, stir up," kinymai "move myself;" Latin ciere (past participle citus, frequentative citare) "to set in motion, summon;" Gothic haitan "call, be called;" Old English hatan "command, call."
c. 1300 (intransitive), "To make a quick sharp noise with frequent repetitions and collisions of bodies not very sonorous: when bodies are sonorous, it is called jingling" [Johnson]. Perhaps in Old English but not recorded; if not, from Middle Dutch ratelen, which is probably of imitative origin (compare German rasseln "to rattle," Greek kradao "I rattle").
The sense of "utter smartly and rapidly, speak with noisy and rapid utterance" is attested by late 14c. The meaning "to go along loosely and noisily" is from 1550s. The transitive sense is from late 14c. The colloquial American English figurative meaning of "fluster, shake up, unsettle" is attested by 1869, on the notion of "startle or stir up by noisy means." Related: Rattled; rattling.
mid-15c., rousen, intransitive, probably from Anglo-French or Old French reuser, ruser; Middle English Compendium compares 16c. French rousee "abrupt movement." Sometimes also said to be from Latin recusare "refuse, decline," with loss of the medial -c-. Originally in English a technical term in hawking, "to shaking the feathers of the body," but like many medieval hawking and hunting terms it is of obscure origin.
The sense of "cause game to rise from cover or lair" is from 1520s. The word became general from 16c. in the figurative, transitive, meaning "stir up, cause to start up by noise or clamor, provoke to activity; waken from torpor or inaction" (1580s); that of "to awaken, cause to start from slumber or repose" is recorded by 1590s. Related: Roused; rousing.