1836, "an aid to breathing," originally a sort of metallic gauze mask fitted to the face by a wire frame and meant to keep out smoke, dust, and especially cold air; agent noun from respire. The word was later used of gas masks in World War I. As "machine to provide artificial respiration" from 1929.
late 14c., generalite, generalte, "universality, universal application;" c. 1400 "whole body of persons," from Old French generalité, generaute "sort, type; totality, entirety," from Late Latin generalitatem (nominative generalitas) "generality," from Latin generalis "relating to all" (see general (adj.)). Related: Generalities. Form generalty is attested from late 14c.
"cutter" (of stone or wood), late 14c. (mid-12c. as a surname), agent noun from hew (v.). Hewers of wood and drawers of water to describe the lowliest sort of physical laborers is from Joshua ix:12. Old English has it as wuduheawerum and þam þe wæter beraþ; the modern form of the phrase is from 1535.
1851, a slang word, defined variously in Mayhew as selling articles or obscene ballads in public houses, playing music on the streets, or performing as a sort of informal stand-up comedy act in pubs, perhaps from an earlier word meaning "to cruise as a pirate" (see busker).
"disreputable, vulgar," 1795, from raff "people," usually of a lower sort (1670s), probably from rif and raf (mid-14c.) "everyone, everything, one and all," from Middle English raf, raffe "one and all, everybody" (see riffraff). Related: Raffishly; raffishness.
"gonorrhea," 1580s, of unknown origin, perhaps from Middle English clapper "rabbit-hole," from Old French clapoire (Modern French clapier), originally "rabbit burrow" (a word of uncertain origin), given a slang extension to "brothel" and also the name of a disease of some sort. In English originally also a verb, "to infect with clap." Related: Clap-doctor.
"U.S. soldier," 1864, American English, said to have been in oral use from 1854, or from the Mexican-American War (1847), it is perhaps from resemblance of big buttons on old uniforms to a sort of cookie or biscuit of that name, a boiled dumpling of raised dough (attested from 1680s), but there are other conjectures.
1818, a kind of Holland gin or a strong, colorless spirit resembling it, from German Schnaps, literally "a mouthful, gulp," from Low German snaps, from snappen "to snap" (see snap (v.)). For sense, compare nip for "alcoholic drink quickly taken." Used in 19c. for "spiritous liquor of any sort;" the flavored varieties are modern.