Etymology
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opportunism (n.)

"policy of adopting actions to circumstances while holding goals unchanged," 1870, originally a word in continental politics; see opportune + -ism. Compare opportunist. Later, in the jargon of socialism and communism, "policy of concession to bourgeois society in the course of developing socialism."

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outsider (n.)

1800, "one who is on the outside" of a boundary, barrier, etc., from outside; figurative sense of "a person isolated from conventional society" is first recorded 1907. The sense of "a race horse not included among the favorites" is from 1836; hence outside chance (1909).

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mobilization (n.)

1799, "a rendering movable," from French mobilisation, from mobiliser (see mobilize). Military sense of "act of putting in readiness for service" is from 1866. Sociological sense of "organizing of latent social energy to bring about change in society" is by 1953.

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lied (n.)
"German romantic song," 1852, from German Lied (plural Lieder), literally "song," from Middle High German liet, from Old High German liod, from Proto-Germanic *leuthan, from a PIE echoic root (see laud). Hence Liederkranz "German singing society," from German, literally "garland of songs."
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ostracize (v.)

"exile by ostracism, banish by popular vote," also in a figurative sense, "to exclude from society or favor," 1640s, from Latinized form of Greek ostrakizein "to banish," literally "to banish by voting with potshards" (see ostracism). Related: Ostracization; ostracized; ostracizing.

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plutocrat (n.)

"person who rules or sways a community or society by virtue of his wealth; person possessing power or influence solely or mainly on account of his riches," 1838, a back-formation from plutocracy. Related: Plutocratic (1843); plutocratical (1833).

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polity (n.)

1530s, "civil organization;" 1640s, "an organized human society or community, body of persons forming a community governed according to a recognized system of government," from French politie (early 15c.) or directly from Late Latin polita "organized government" (see policy (n.1)).

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gavel (n.)
"small mallet used by presiding officers at meetings," 1805, American English, of unknown origin; perhaps connected with German dialectal gaffel "brotherhood, friendly society," from Middle High German gaffel "society, guild," related to Old English gafol "tribute," giefan "to give" (from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive"). But in some sources gavel also is identified as a type of mason's tool, in which case the extended meaning may be via freemasonry. As a verb, by 1887, from the noun. Old English had tabule "wooden hammer struck as a signal for assembly among monks," an extended sense of table (n.).
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proceeding (n.)

early 15c., "act of continuing a process;" mid-15c., "action of going forward, procession," verbal noun from proceed (v.). From 1550s as "what is done, conduct, a measure or step taken." Proceedings "records of the doings of a society" is attested by 1824.

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charter school (n.)

older uses refer to schools in Ireland begun 1733 by the Charter Society to provide Protestant education to poor Catholic children. Modern use in U.S. began c. 1988, as an alternative to state-run public education.

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