Etymology
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self-interest (n.)

"regard to or pursuit of private interest, advantage to oneself," 1640s, from self- + interest (n.). Especially "selfishness, pursuit of egotistical interests to the exclusion of regard for others." Related: Self-interested, "characterized by self-interest" (1650s); self-interestedness.

[Self-interest] is a doctrine not very lofty, but clear and sure. It does not seek to attain great objects; but it attains those it aims for without too much effort. ... [It] does not produce great devotion; but it suggests little sacrifices each day; by itself it cannot make a man virtuous; but it forms a multitude of citizens who are regulated, temperate, moderate, farsighted, masters of themselves; and if it does not lead directly to virtue through the will, it brings them near to it insensibly through habits. [Alexis de Tocqueville, "Democracy in America"]
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self-possession (n.)

"command of one's emotions or powers, presence of mind, calmness," 1734, from self- + possession (n.). Related: Self-possessed. Self-collected for "in command of one's emotions" is from 1711.

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self-preservation (n.)

"preservation of oneself from destruction or injury," especially as an instinct or natural law, 1610s; see self- + preservation.

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self-sufficiency (n.)

"inherent fitness for all ends and purposes and independence of others," 1620s, originally also an attribute of God (translating Greek autakreia); see self + sufficiency. Of mortals, "ability to supply one's own needs," it is implied by 1580s (compare self-sufficient). Sometimes formerly also "an overweening opinion of one's talent or worth" (1690s).

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self-reliant (adj.)

"trusting to one's own powers," 1826; see self- + reliant. Self-dependent in the same sense is from 1670s 

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self-sufficient (adj.)

"able to supply one's own needs, capable of fulfilling one's own desires without aid of others," 1580s, from self- + sufficient. Related: Self-sufficiently. Self-sufficing (1680s) is properly "sufficient for oneself."

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self-examination (n.)

1640s, "scrutiny into one's own state, conduct, or motives," from self- + examination. By 1955 as "examination of one's own body for signs of illness."

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self-explanatory (adj.)

"explaining itself, obvious, bearing its meaning on the surface," 1813, from self- + explanatory. Earlier was self-explained (1725).

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self-government (n.)

1734, of persons, "self-control;" 1798, of states, nations, provinces, cities, etc., "administration of its own affairs without outside direction or interference," from self- + government. Related: Self-governing (1680s); self-governed (1709 as an adjective, of persons, "marked by self-control").

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