"hanging formation of carbonite of lime from the roof of a cave," 1670s, Englished from Modern Latin stalactites (used 1654 by Olaus Wormius), from Greek stalaktos "dripping, oozing out in drops," from stalassein "to trickle," from PIE root *stag- "to seep, drip, drop" (source also of German stallen, Lithuanian telžiu, telžti "to urinate") + noun suffix -ite (1). Related: Stalactic; stalactitic.
"a round, vaulted roof, a hemispherical covering of a building," 1650s, from French dome "a town-house; a dome, a cupola" (16c.), from Provençal doma, from Greek dōma "a house, housetop" (especially in reference to a style of roof from the east), related to domos "house," from PIE root *dem- "house, household."
In the Middle Ages, German dom and Italian duomo were used for "cathedral" (on the notion of "God's house"), so English began to use this word in the sense "cupola," a dome at the intersection of the nave and the transept, or over the sanctuary, being a characteristic architectural feature of Italian cathedrals.
The word was used in U.S. also with reference to round summits of mountains, roofs of railroad cars, etc. The etymological sense "a building, a house," especially a stately one, was borrowed earlier in English (1510s) but mostly was restricted to poetry.
c. 1200, "collection of things bound together," from Old French trousse, torse "parcel, package, bundle," of uncertain origin, perhaps from Vulgar Latin *torciare "to twist," from Late Latin torquere "to twist" (from PIE root *terkw- "to twist"). Meaning "surgical appliance to support a rupture, etc." first attested 1540s. Sense of "framework for supporting a roof or bridge" is first recorded 1650s.
"an upper chamber," c. 1300, an extended sense from late Old English loft "the sky; the sphere of the air," from Old Norse lopt (Scandinavian -pt- pronounced like -ft-) "air, sky," originally "upper story, loft, attic," from Proto-Germanic *luftuz "air, sky" (source also of Old English lyft, Dutch lucht, Old High German luft, German Luft, Gothic luftus "air").
If this is correct, the sense development would be from "loft, ceiling" to "sky, air." Buck suggests a further connection with Old High German louft "bark," louba "roof, attic," etc., with development from "bark" to "roof made of bark" to "ceiling," though this did not directly inform the meaning "air, sky" (compare lodge (n.)). But Watkins says this is "probably a separate Germanic root." Meaning "gallery in a church" first attested c. 1500. From 1520s as "apartment over a stable" used for hay storage, etc.
1630s, in astronomy/astrology, "position of a heavenly body when it is on the meridian," from French culmination, noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin culminare "to top, to crown," from Latin culmen (genitive culminis) "top, peak, summit, roof, gable," also used figuratively, contraction of columen "top, summit" (from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill"). Figurative sense of "highest point or summit" is from 1650s.
early 13c., "a cover or covering" (earliest reference is to bedcovers), from Old French coverture (12c.) "blanket; roof; concealment," from Latin *coopertura, from past participle stem of cooperire "to cover" (see cover (v.)). From late 14c. as "a protective device, a refuge." In old law, "the state of a married woman considered as under the power and protection of her husband" (1540s).
At common law coverture disabled a woman from making contracts to the prejudice of herself or her husband without his allowance or confirmation. [Century Dictionary]
1640s, in astronomy, of a star or planet, "come to or be on the highest point of altitude; come to or be on the meridian," from Late Latin culminatus past participle of culminare "to top, to crown," from Latin culmen (genitive culminis) "top, peak, summit, roof, gable," also used figuratively, a contraction of columen "top, summit" (from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill"). Figurative sense in English of "reach the highest point" is from 1660s. Related: Culminant; culminated; culminating.
1550s, "cloister, covered walk," from Medieval Latin laubia, lobia "covered walk in a monastery," from a Germanic source (compare Old High German louba "hall, roof;" see lodge (n.)).
Meaning "large entrance hall in a public building" is from 1590s; in reference to the House of Commons from 1630s. Political sense of "those who seek to influence legislation" is attested by 1790s in American English, in reference to the custom of influence-seekers gathering in the large entrance-halls outside legislative chambers.
"thin strip of wood" used chiefly in roof-building and plastering, late 13c., probably from an unrecorded Old English *læððe, variant of lætt "beam, lath," which is apparently from a Proto-Germanic *laþþo (source also of Old Saxon, Old Norse latta, Middle Dutch, German latte "lath," Dutch lat, Middle High German lade "plank," which is the source of German Laden "counter," hence, "shop"), but there are phonetic difficulties.
late 14c., in heraldry, "a device in the shape of an inverted V," from Old French chevron "rafter; chevron" (13c.), so called because it looks like rafters of a shallow roof, from Vulgar Latin *caprione, from Latin caper "goat" (see cab); the hypothetical connection between goats and rafters being the animal's angular hind legs. Compare gambrel, also Latin capreolus "props, stays, short pieces of timber for support," literally "wild goat, chamoix."