Etymology
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foliage (n.)

mid-15c., ffoylage, "representation of leaves or branches" (as an ornamental design). Compare Middle French feuillage, from Old French feuille "leaf, foliage" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom"). The form has altered 17c. by influence of Latin folium or its derivatives in English.

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simulacrum (n.)

1590s, from Latin simulacrum "likeness, image, form, representation, portrait," a dissimilation of *simulaclom, from simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" (see similar). The word was borrowed earlier as semulacre (late 14c.), via Old French simulacre.

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purism (n.)

1803, of language, "exclusion of admixture of any kind," often pejorative, "scrupulous affectation of rigid purity," from French purisme (see purist + -ism). As a movement in painting and sculpture that rejected cubism and returned to representation of the physical object, by 1921, with a capital P-.

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obscenity (n.)

1580s, "obscene quality, lewdness in action, expression, or representation," from French obscénité, from Latin obscenitatem (nominative obscenitas) "inauspiciousness, filthiness," from obscenus "offensive" (see obscene). Meaning "a foul or loathsome act" is 1610s. Sense of "an obscene utterance or word" is attested by 1690. Related: Obscenities.

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pseudograph (n.)

"writing falsely ascribed to someone," 1828 (in German from 1809), from Late Latin pseudographus, from Greek pseudographos "writer of falsehoods," from pseudo- (see pseudo-) + graphos "(something) drawn or written" (see -graphy). Pseudography was in English from 1570s with a sense of "bad spelling; incorrect system or method of graphic representation."

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portrait (n.)

1560s, "a figure, drawn or painted," a back formation from portraiture or directly from French portrait, from Old French portret (13c.), noun use of past participle of portraire "to paint, depict" (see portray). Especially a picture or representation of the head and face of a person drawn from life. Related: Portraitist.

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logograph (n.)
"instrument for giving a graphic representation of speech, word-writer," 1879, from logo- "word" + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." Earliest use (1797) is in the sense "logogriph," and it frequently was used in place of that word (see logogriph). In ancient Greek, logographos was "prose-writer, chronicler, speech-writer." Related: Logographic.
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adumbration (n.)

1550s, "faint sketch, imperfect representation," from Latin adumbrationem (nominative adumbratio) "a sketch in shadow, sketch, outline," noun of action from past-participle stem of adumbrare "to cast a shadow, overshadow," in painting, "represent (a thing) in outline," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + umbrare "to cast in shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind; dark" (see umbrage).

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meow (n.)

representation of cat sound, 1842, earlier miaow, miau, meaw (1630s). Of imitative origin, compare French miaou, German miauen, Persian maw, Japanese nya nya, Arabic nau-nau, and Joyce's mrkgnao. In Chinese, miau means "cat." As a verb in English by 1630s, meaw, also meawle. Compare Old French miauer "to meow, caterwaul." Related: Meowed; meowing.

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signification (n.)

early 14c., "symbolization, representation," from Old French significacion and directly from Latin significationem (nominative significatio) "a signifying, indication, expression, sign, token, meaning, emphasis," noun of action from past participle stem of significare "make known, indicate" (see signify). From late 14c. as "meaning" (of a word, etc.). Old English used getacnung as a loan-translation of Latin significatio.

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