Etymology
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irreligious (adj.)

"not religious, without religious principles; condemning religion, impious, ungodly," c. 1400, from Late Latin irreligiosus "irreligious, impious," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + religiosus (see religious). Related: Irreligiously.

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goddess (n.)
mid-14c., female deity in a polytheistic religion, from god + fem. suffix -esse (see -ess). The Old English word was gyden, corresponding to Dutch godin, German Göttin, Danish gudine, Swedish gudinna. Of mortal women by 1570s. Related: Goddesshood.
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kathenotheism (n.)
"a form of polytheism characteristic of the Vedic religion, in which one god at a time is considered supreme," 1865, coined in German by Max Müller from Greek kath' hena "one by one" (from kata- "according to" + en- "one") + -theism. Müller also coined the nearly synonymous henotheism (1860, from Greek henos "one") for "faith in a single god" as distinguished from exclusive belief in only one god, in writings on early Hebrew religion. He also has adevism (from Sanskrit deva "god") for "disbelief in the old gods and legends").
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ministry (n.)

c. 1200, ministerie, "the office or function of a priest, a position in a church or monastery; service in matters of religion," from Old French menistere "service, ministry; position, post, employment" and directly from Latin ministerium "office, service, attendance, ministry," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).

From late 14c. as "personal service or aid." From 1560s as "the body of ministers of religion, the clerical class." From 1710 as "the body of ministers of state in a country." It began to be used 1916 in the names of certain departments in the British government.

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Cid 

el Cid, title applied in Spanish literature to dauntless Castilian nobleman and warlord Ruy Diaz, Count of Bivar (c.1040-1099), champion of the Christian religion and the old Spanish monarchy against the Moors,  1680s, from Spanish cid "chief, commander," from Arabic sayyid "lord."

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Islamist (n.)
1850, "a Muslim," from Islam + -ist. Later also "scholar of Islamic studies." By 1962 specifically as "strict fundamentalist Sunni Muslim." Islamism is attested from 1747 as "the religion of the Muslims, Islam." Islamite "a Muslim" is from 1786 (1768 as an adjective); Islamize/Islamise (v.) is from 1849.
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Proserpina 

in Roman religion, one of the greater gods, daughter of Ceres and wife of Pluto; a  Latin (or Etruscan) corruption or modification of Greek Persephonē (see Persephone), perhaps influenced by Latin proserpere "to creep forth" on the notion of the germination of plants.

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secularist (n.)
1846, "one who theoretically rejects and ignores all forms of religion based on revelation;" see secularism + -ist. From 1851 as "one who maintains that public education and civil policy should be conducted without the introduction of a religious element." Related: Secularistic.
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Islam (n.)

"religious system revealed by Muhammad," 1816, from Arabic islam, literally "submission" (to the will of God), from root of aslama "he resigned, he surrendered, he submitted," causative conjunction of salima "he was safe," and related to salam "peace."

... Islam is the only major religion, along with Buddhism (if we consider the name of the religion to come from Budd, the Divine Intellect, and not the Buddha), whose name is not related to a person or ethnic group, but to the central idea of the religion. ["The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity," Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2002]

Earlier English names for the faith include Mahometry (late 15c.), Muhammadism (1610s), Islamism (1747), and Ismaelism (c. 1600; see Ismailite). The Ismailites were not numerous in Islam, but among them were the powerful Fatimid dynasty in Egypt and the Assassins, both of which loomed large in European imagination. This use also is in part from Ishmaelite, a name formerly given (especially by Jews) to Arabs, as descendants of Ishmael (q.v.).

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Averroes 
Latinization of name of Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) Arab philosopher and physician of Spain and Morocco. He reintroduced, before the Renaissance, something of Aristotle's doctrines and his followers were particularly noted for their separation of philosophy from religion. Related: Averroist; Averoistic.
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