1751, "adoption," from French affiliation, from Medieval Latin affiliationem (nominative affiliatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin affiliare "to adopt as a son," from ad "to" (see ad-) + filius "son" (see filial).
The figurative sense of "adoption by a society," in reference to a local chapter or branch, is recorded by 1799 (the verb affiliate in a related sense is from 1761). The meaning "friendship, relationship, association" is by 1852.
1727, "resemblance of sounds between words other than rhyme," from French assonance, from assonant, from Latin assonantem (nominative assonans), present participle of assonare/adsonare "to resound, respond," from ad "to" (see ad-) + sonare "to sound" (from PIE root *swen- "to sound").
The more specific sense in prosody of "rhyming or correspondence of accented vowels but not consonants" is from 1823. In 20c. the sense tended to merge with consonance in the notion of slant rhyme, off rhyme, but properly there is a distinction.
Assonance is the relationship between words with different consonants immediately preceding and following the last accented vowels, which vowels have identical sounds (hit/will, disturb/bird, absolute/unglued). Consonance is the relationship between words whose final accented vowel sounds are different but with the same consonant frame (truck/trick, billion/bullion, impelling/compiling, trance/trounce). [Miller Williams, "Patterns of Poetry"]
1835, in reference to a carnivorous raccoon-like mammal (the lesser panda) of the Himalayas, from French, apparently from the Nepalese name of the animal. The first reference in English to the Giant Panda is from 1901; since its discovery in 1869 by French missionary Armand David (1826-1900) it had been known as parti-colored bear, but the name was changed after the zoological relationship to the red panda was established.
c. 1400, "to speak or sing softly," originally Scottish; compare Middle Dutch kronen "to lament, mourn," Old High German kronen "babble." The relationship among them is obscure, perhaps all are imitative. In early use also "to bellow like a bull" as well as "to utter a low, murmuring sound" (mid-15c.). Popularized by Robert Burns. The medieval sense evolution might be from "to lament" to "sing softly and sadly." Related: Crooned; crooning.
mid-14c., pinnen, "to affix with a pin," from pin (n.). Figurative uses, on the notion of "seize and hold fast in the same spot or position" are from 1570s. Related: Pinned; pinning. Sense of "to hold someone or something down so he or it cannot escape" is attested from 1740. In U.S. colleges, as a reference to the bestowal of a fraternity pin on a female student as an indication of a relationship, it is attested by 1938. Phrase pin down "define" is from 1951.
14c., "fraternal relation, relationship between sons of the same father or mother," from brother + -hood; earlier was brotherhede (c. 1300), with ending as in maidenhead; and Old English had broþerrede, with ending as in kindred. The modern form of the word prevailed from 15c.
Originally "relationship of a brother," also "friendly companionship." Concrete sense of "an association of men for any purpose, a fraternity" is from mid-14c. in the Middle English word (later also "labor union," 1880s). Meaning "a class of individuals of the same kind" is from 1728. Meaning "community feeling uniting all humankind" is from 1784. Old English also had broðorscipe "brothership," broðorsibb "kinship of brothers."
What edge of subtlety canst thou suppose
Keen enough, wise and skilful as thou art,
To cut the link of brotherhood, by which
One common Maker bound me to the kind?
[Cowper, from "The Task," 1785]
Oh, the Protestants hate the Catholics,
And the Catholics hate the Protestants,
And the Hindus hate the Muslims,
And everybody hates the Jews.
[Tom Lehrer, "National Brotherhood Week" lyrics, 1965]
Sense of "home for the aged and terminally ill " is from 1879; hospice movement first attested 1978.