realism (n.)

"the doctrine of a realist," in any sense of that word, 1794, originally in philosophy, from real (adj.) + -ism; after French réalisme or German Realismus; from Late Latin realis "real."

In reference to scholastic doctrine of Thomas Aquinas (opposed to nominalism), it is recorded in English from 1826. Opposed to idealism in philosophy, art, etc. The sense of "tendency to see things as they are" is by 1817. The meaning in art, literature, etc., "close resemblance to the scene, representation of what is real in fact" (often with attention to unpleasant details) is attested from 1856 (Ruskin; compare realistic).

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hacienda (n.)

1760, from American Spanish, "an estate or ranch in the country," from Spanish hacienda "landed estate, plantation," earlier facienda, from Latin facienda "things to be done," from facere "to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). For noun use of a Latin gerundive, compare agenda. The owner of one is a hacendado.

The change of Latin f- to Spanish h- is characteristic; compare hablar from fabulari, hacer from facere, hecho from factum, hermoso from formosum. Confusion of initial h- and f- was common in 16c. Spanish; the conquistador is known in contemporary records as both Hernando and Fernando Cortés.

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unreal (adj.)

c. 1600, "not real," from un- (1) "not" + real (adj.). Meaning "impractical, visionary" is by 1660s. Slang sense of "wonderful, great" is first recorded 1965.

Unreal City,
Under the brown fog of a winter dawn,
A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many,
I had not thought death had undone so many.
[Eliot, from "The Waste Land," 1922]
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laird (n.)

"landed proprietor or hereditary estate-holder in Scotland," mid-15c. (mid-13c. as a surname), Scottish and northern England dialectal variant of lord, from Middle English laverd (see lord (n.)). Related: Lairdship.

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etymon (n.)

"primitive word," 1570s, from Greek etymon, neuter of etymos "true, real, actual" (see etymology). Classical Greek used etymon as an adverb, "truly, really." Related: Etymic.

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surrender (n.)

early 15c., in law, "a giving up" (of an estate, land grant, interest in property, etc.), from Anglo-French surrendre, Old French surrendre noun use of infinitive, "give up, deliver over" (see surrender (v.)).

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damaging (adj.)

"causing hurt or loss to person, character, or estate," 1849, present-participle adjective from damage (v.). Related: Damagingly (1849). Earlier in the same sense were damageous (late 14c.), damageful (mid-15c.), both now obsolete.

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ostensible (adj.)

1730, "capable of being shown, that can be shown or seen, presentable," from French ostensible, from Latin ostens-, past-participle stem of ostendere "to show, expose to view; to stretch out, spread before; exhibit, display," from assimilated form of ob "in front of" (see ob-) + tendere "to stretch" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch"). Meaning "apparent, professed, put forth or held out as real" is from 1771.

Ostensible is, literally, that may be or is held out as true, real, actual, or intended, but may or may not be so: thus, a person's ostensible motive for some action is the motive that appears to the observer, and is held out to him as the real motive, which it may or may not be. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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seeming (adj.)

"that appears to be (real, proper, etc.), apparent to the senses or mind, having a semblance or appearance of being real," mid-14c., present-participle adjective from seem Also "suitable, becoming" (mid-14c.); "worthy of respect, honorable" (late 14c.), but these are obsolete. As a noun, "act of appearing," late 14c.  Seemingly (adv.) in the sense of "to all appearances" is recorded from 1590s; earlier it meant "fittingly, properly (early 15c.), "in the correct or pleasing manner" (c. 1200).

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domain (n.)

c. 1600, "territory over which dominion is exerted," from French domaine "domain, estate," from Medieval Latin domanium "domain, estate," from Latin dominium "property, dominion," from dominus "lord, master, owner," from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household"). A later borrowing from French of the word which became demesne.

Sense of "dominion, province of action" is from 1727. Meaning "range or limits of any department of knowledge or sphere of action" is from 1764. Internet domain name is attested by 1985. Via the notion of "ownership of land" comes legal eminent domain "ultimate or supreme lordship over all property in the state" is attested from 1738.

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