It forms all or part of: appoint; appointment; bung; compunction; contrapuntal; expugn; expunge; impugn; interpunction; oppugn; pink; poignant; point; pointe; pointillism; poniard; pounce; pugilism; pugilist; pugnacious; pugnacity; punch (n.1) "pointed tool for making holes or embossing;" punch (n.3) "a quick blow with the fist;" punch (v.) "to hit with the fist;" puncheon (n.2) "pointed tool for punching or piercing;" punctilio; punctilious; punctual; punctuate; punctuation; puncture; pungent; punty; Pygmy; repugn; repugnance; repugnant.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek pyx "with clenched fist," pygme "fist, boxing," pyktes "boxer;" Latin pugnare "to fight," especially with the fists, pungere "to pierce, prick."
"tool for digging," Old English spadu "spade," from Proto-Germanic *spadan (source also of Old Frisian spada "a spade," Middle Dutch spade "a sword," Old Saxon spado, Middle Low German spade, German Spaten), from PIE *spe-dh-(source also of Greek spathē "wooden blade, paddle"), which as a suffixed form has been grouped under a root *speh-, "with several extensions, denoting quite different implements" (Boutkan) but basically indicating "long, flat piece of wood" (source also of Old English spon "chip of wood, splinter," Old Norse spann "shingle, chip;" see spoon (n.)).
"A spade differs from a two-handed shovel chiefly in the form and thickness of the blade" [Century Dictionary]. To call a spade a spade "use blunt language, call things by right names" (1540s) translates a Greek proverb (known to Lucian), ten skaphen skaphen legein "to call a bowl a bowl," but Erasmus mistook Greek skaphē "trough, bowl" for a derivative of the stem of skaptein "to dig," and the mistake has stuck [see OED].
"oriental water pipe for smoking," by 1820, from French narghileh, from Persian nargileh, from nargil "cocoa-nut," of which the bowl was originally made. The Persian word is probably from Sanskrit narikerah, which may be from a Dravidian source.
"claw of a bird of prey," late 15c., pownse, probably from Old French ponchon "lance, javelin; spine, quill" (Modern French poinçon; see punch (v.)). So called for being the "claws that punch" holes in things. In falconry, the heel claw is a talon, and others are pounces. Hence, "a stab, thrust" (c. 1400). In Middle English also the name of a tool for punching holes or embossing metal (late 14c.), from pounce (v.) in the special sense of "ornament by perforation." Clothing ornamented with cut-out figures was pounced.
"cup-shaped," applied especially to the socket of the hip joint, 1760, from Latinized form of Greek kotyloeides "cup-shaped," from kotylē "bowl, dish, small cup," in transferred use, "socket of the hip-joint," a word of uncertain origin, + -oeidēs (see -oid).
"basin-like cavity formed by the bones of the pelvic girdle," 1610s, from Modern Latin, from Latin pelvis "basin, laver," Old Latin peluis "basin," from PIE *pel- "container" (source also of Sanskrit palavi "vessel," Greek pelex "helmet," pelike "goblet, bowl," Old Norse and Old English full "cup").
1670s, "a drawing on strong paper" (used as a model for another work), from French carton or directly from Italian cartone "strong, heavy paper, pasteboard," thus "preliminary sketches made by artists on such paper" (see carton). Extension to drawings in newspapers and magazines is by 1843. Originally they were to advocate or attack a political faction or idea; later they were merely comical as well.
Punch has the benevolence to announce, that in an early number of his ensuing Volume he will astonish the Parliamentary Committee by the publication of several exquisite designs, to be called Punch's Cartoons! [Punch, June 24, 1843]
Also see -oon. As "an animated movie," by 1916.
1610s, "bowl-shaped mouth of a volcano," from a specialized use of Latin crater, from Greek krater "large bowl from which red wine mixed with water was served to guests," from kera- "to mix," from PIE root *kere- "to mix, confuse; cook" (see rare (adj.2)).
The extension to volcanoes began in Latin. The literal classical sense is attested in English from 1730. Applied to asteroid scars on the moon since 1831 (they originally were thought to be volcanic) and later extended to other planets. Meaning "cavity formed by the explosion of a military mine" is from 1839. The Battle of the Crater in the U.S. Civil War was July 30, 1864.
As a verb, "having a crater or craters," by 1848 in poetry, 1872 in scientific writing. Related: Cratered; cratering.