"a race or succession of sovereigns from the same line or family governing a country," mid-15c. (earlier dynastia, late 14c.), from Medieval Latin dynastia, from Greek dynasteia "power, lordship, sovereignty," from dynastes "ruler, chief," from dynasthai "have power," which is of unknown origin.
1550s, from French sultan "ruler of Turkey" (16c.), ultimately from Arabic (Semitic) sultan "ruler, prince, monarch, king, queen," originally "power, dominion." According to Klein's sources, this is from Aramaic shultana "power," from shelet "have power." Earlier English word was soldan, soudan (c. 1300), used indiscriminately of Muslim rulers and sovereigns, from Old French souldan, soudan, from Medieval Latin sultanus. Related: Sultanic.
c. 1400, potentat, "a ruler, lord, prince, monarch; person who possesses independent power or sway," from Old French potentat and directly from Late Latin potentatus "a ruler," also "political power," from Latin potentatus "might, power, rule, dominion," from potentem (nominative potens) "powerful," from potis "powerful, able, capable; possible;" of persons, "better, preferable; chief, principal; strongest, foremost," from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord."
"potency, power, strength," early 15c., from Old French potence "power," from Latin potentia,from potis "powerful, able, capable," from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord." The potence in watch-making, etc. (1670s) is from a special sense of French potence "a crutch."
"invested with, having, or bestowing full power," 1640s, from French plénipotentiaire and directly from Medieval Latin plenipotentiarius "having full power," from Late Latin plenipotens, from Latin plenus "complete, full" (from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill") + potentem "powerful" (see potent). As a noun from 1650s, "person invested with full powers to transact any business," especially with reference to an ambassador to a foreign court or government, given full power to negotiate a treaty or transact other business.
"paralyzed; deprived of energy or power of action," 1540s, past-participle adjective from palsy.