Etymology
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*er- (2)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "earth, ground." It forms all or part of: aardvark; aardwolf; earth; earthen; earthy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old English eorþe "ground, soil, dirt, dry land," Old Norse jörð, Old High German erda, Gothic airþa; Middle Irish -ert "earth."
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*aim- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to copy." 

It forms all or part of: emulate; emulation; emulous;  image; imaginary; imagination; imaginative; imagine; imago; imitable; imitate; imitative; imitator; inimitable.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin imago "image," aemulus "emulous," imitari "to copy, portray, imitate;" Hittite himma- "imitation, substitute."

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*ghel- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to call." 

It forms all or part of: nightingale; yell; yelp

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek kikhle "thrush," also a kind of fish, khelidon "the swallow;" Lithuanian gulbinti "to praise;" Old English galan "to sing," galdor "spell, charm, magic, enchantment," giellan "to yell," gielpan "to boast."  

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*bhel- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine, flash, burn," also "shining white" and forming words for bright colors.

It forms all or part of: beluga; Beltane; black; blancmange; blanch; blank; blanket; blaze (n.1) "bright flame, fire;" bleach; bleak; blemish; blench; blende; blend; blind; blindfold; blitzkrieg; blond; blue (adj.1); blush; conflagration; deflagration; effulgence; effulgent; flagrant; flambe; flambeau; flamboyant; flame; flamingo; flammable; Flavian; Flavius; fulgent; fulminate; inflame; inflammable; phlegm; phlegmatic; phlogiston; phlox; purblind; refulgent; riboflavin.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit bhrajate "shines;" Greek phlegein "to burn;" Latin flamma "flame," fulmen "lightning," fulgere "to shine, flash," flagrare "to burn, blaze, glow;" Old Church Slavonic belu "white;" Lithuanian balnas "pale."

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*ghwer- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "wild beast."

It forms all or part of: baluchitherium; feral; ferine; ferocious; ferocity; fierce; ther-; Theropoda; treacle.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin ferus "wild, untamed;" Greek thēr, Old Church Slavonic zveri, Lithuanian žvėris "wild beast."

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*reudh- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "red, ruddy." The only color for which a definite common PIE root word has been found. The initial -e- in the Greek word is because Greek tends to avoid beginning words with -r-.

It forms all or part of: bilirubin; corroborate; Eritrea; erysipelas; erythema; erythro-; Radnor; red; redskin; roan; robust; rooibos; Rotwelsch; rouge; roux; rowan; rubella; rubicund; rubric; ruby; ruddock; ruddy; rufous; Rufus; russet; rust.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin ruber, also dialectal rufus "light red," mostly of hair; Greek erythros; Sanskrit rudhira-; Avestan raoidita-; Old Church Slavonic rudru, Polish rumiany, Russian rumjanyj "flushed, red," of complexions, etc.; Lithuanian raudas; Old Irish ruad, Welsh rhudd, Breton ruz "red."
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*kaput- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "head."

It forms all or part of: achieve; behead; biceps; cabbage; cabochon; caddie; cadet; cap; cap-a-pie; cape (n.1) "garment;" cape (n.2) "promontory;" capital (adj.); capital (n.3) "head of a column or pillar;" capitate; capitation; capitulate; capitulation; capitulum; capo (n.1) "leader of a Mafia family;" capo (n.2) "pitch-altering device for a stringed instrument;" caprice; capsize; captain; cattle; caudillo; chapter; chef; chief; chieftain; corporal (n.); decapitate; decapitation; forehead; head; hetman; kaput; kerchief; mischief; occipital; precipice; precipitate; precipitation; recapitulate; recapitulation; sinciput; triceps.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kaput-; Latin caput "head;" Old English heafod, German Haupt, Gothic haubiþ "head."
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*agh- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "a day" (as a unit of time). The initial d- in Germanic is of obscure origin.

It forms all or part of: adays; Bundestag; daily; daisy; dawn; day; holiday; Reichstag; today.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dah "to burn," Lithuanian dagas "hot season," Old Prussian dagis "summer."
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*ghel- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine;" it forms words for "gold" (the "bright" metal), words denoting colors, especially "yellow" and "green," also "bile, gall," for its color, and a large group of Germanic gl- words having to do with shining and glittering and, perhaps, sliding. Buck says the interchange of words for yellow and green is "perhaps because they were applied to vegetation like grass, cereals, etc., which changed from green to yellow."

It forms all or part of: arsenic; Chloe; chloral; chloride; chlorinate; chlorine; chloro-; chloroform; chlorophyll; chloroplast; cholecyst; choler; cholera; choleric; cholesterol; cholinergic; Cloris; gall (n.1) "bile, liver secretion;" gild; glad; glance; glare; glass; glaze; glazier; gleam; glee; glib; glide; glimmer; glimpse; glint; glissade; glisten; glister; glitch; glitter; glitzy; gloaming; gloat; gloss (n.1) "glistening smoothness, luster;" glow; glower; gold; guilder; jaundice; melancholic; melancholy; yellow; zloty.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit harih "yellow, tawny yellow," hiranyam "gold;" Avestan zari "yellow;" Old Persian daraniya-, Avestan zaranya- "gold;"  Greek khlōros "greenish-yellow color,"  kholos "bile, gall, wrath;"  Latin helvus "yellowish, bay," Gallo-Latin gilvus "light bay;" Lithuanian geltonas "yellow;" Old Church Slavonic zlutu, Polish żółty, Russian zeltyj "yellow;" Latin galbus "greenish-yellow," fellis "bile, gall;" Lithuanian žalias "green," želvas "greenish," tulžis "bile;" Old Church Slavonic zelenu, Polish zielony, Russian zelenyj "green;" Old Irish glass, Welsh and Breton glas "green," also "gray, blue;" Old English galla "gall, bile," geolu, geolwe, German gelb, Old Norse gulr "yellow;" Old Church Slavonic zlato, Russian zoloto, Old English gold, Gothic gulþ "gold;" Old English glæs "glass; a glass vessel."

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*leigh- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to lick." It forms all or part of: cunnilingus; lecher; lichen; lick.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit ledhi "he licks," Armenian lizum "I lick," Greek leikhein "to lick," Latin lingere "to lick," Old Irish ligim "I lick," Welsh llwy "spoon," Old English liccian "to lick."
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