Etymology
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cynosure (n.)

"something that strongly attracts attention," 1590s, from French cynosure (16c.), from Latin Cynosura, literally "dog's tail," an old name of the constellation (now Ursa Minor) containing what is now (but was not in ancient times) the North Star, the focus of navigation, at the tip of its tail; from Greek kynosoura, literally "dog's tail," from kyōn (genitive kynos; from PIE root *kwon- "dog") + oura "tail" (see arse). Apparently in ancient times the whole constellation was used as a rough indicator of the celestial north pole. Related: Cynosural.

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fox (n.)
Old English fox "a fox," from Proto-Germanic *fuhsaz "fox" (cognates Old Saxon vohs, Middle Dutch and Dutch vos, Old High German fuhs, German Fuchs, Old Norse foa, Gothic fauho), from Proto-Germanic *fuh-, from PIE *puk- "tail" (source also of Sanskrit puccha- "tail").

The bushy tail also inspired words for "fox" in Welsh (llwynog, from llwyn "bush"); Spanish (raposa, from rabo "tail"); and Lithuanian (uodegis, from uodega "tail"). Metaphoric extension to "clever person" was in late Old English. Meaning "sexually attractive woman" is from 1940s; but foxy in this sense is recorded from 1895. A fox-tail was anciently one of the badges of a fool (late 14c.).

A late Old English translation of the Medicina de Quadrupedibus of Sextus Placitus advises, for women "who suffer troubles in their inward places, work for them into a salve a foxes limbs and his grease, with old oil and with tar; apply to the womens places; quickly it healeth the troubles." It also recommends, for sexual intercourse without irritation, "the extremest end of a foxes tail hung upon the arm." Rubbing a fox's testicles on warts was supposed a means to get rid of them.
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horsetail (n.)
c. 1400, from horse (n.) + tail (n.). As a kind of plant, from 1530s.
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ponytail (n.)
long hair style, originally of girls, 1950, from pony (n.) + tail (n.).
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Toltec (adj.)
1787, in reference to an ancient people of Mexico, from Nahuatl (Aztecan) tolteca, literally "people of the tules" (cat-tail reeds).
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cue (n.2)

 "tail, something hanging down," variant of queue (n.), ultimately from Latin cauda "tail." Meaning "long roll or plait of a wig or hair worn hanging down, a pigtail," is from 1731. Meaning "straight, tapering rod with a small soft pad, used in billiards," is by 1749. Hence cue-ball, the ball struck by the cue, recorded by 1881.

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skua (n.)
type of predatory gull, 1670s, from Faeroese skugvur, related to Old Norse skufr "seagull, tuft, tassel," and possibly to skauf "fox's tail."
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horsehair (n.)
late 14c., from horse (n.) + hair (n.). Specifically the hair of the mane and tail, used for making haircloth and stuffing cushions, etc.
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queue (n.)

late 15c., "band attached to a letter with seals dangling on the free end," from French queue "a tail," from Old French cue, coe, queue, "tail" (12c., also "penis"), from Latin coda (dialectal variant or alternative form of cauda) "tail" (see coda, and compare cue (n.2)).

Also in literal use in 16c. English, "tail of a beast," especially in heraldry. A metaphoric extension to "line of dancers" (c. 1500) perhaps led to the extended sense of "line of people, etc." (1837), but this use in English is perhaps directly from French (queue à queue, "one after another" appears in early 19c. English and American military dictionaries).

If we look now at Paris one thing is too evident: that the Baker's shops have got their Queues, or Tails ; their long strings of purchasers arranged in tail, so that the first come be the first served,—were the shop once open! This waiting in tail, not seen since the early days of July, again makes its appearance in August. In time, we shall see it perfected, by practice to the rank almost of an art ; and the art, or quasi-art, of standing in tail become one of the characteristics of the Parisian People, distinguishing them from all other Peoples whatsoever. [Carlyle, "The French Revolution," 1837]

Also used 18c. in sense of "braid of hair hanging down behind" (attested by 1748), originally part of the wig, in later 18c. of the hair of the head.

QUEUE. From the French, which signifies tail; an appendage that every British soldier is directed to wear in lieu of a club. Regimental tails were ordered be nine inches long. [William Duane, "A Military Dictionary," Philadelphia, 1810]
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Denebola 
second-brightest star in Leo, from Latinized corruption of Arabic dhanab al-(asad) "tail of the lion." In 18c., often simply Deneb.
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