Etymology
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infiltration (n.)
"action or process of infiltrating," in physics, 1796, noun of action from infiltrate. Figurative sense of "a passing into" (anything immaterial) is from 1840; military sense of "stealthy penetration of enemy lines" dates from 1930. The same word had been used earlier in a medical sense of "a knitting together" (early 15c.), from Medieval Latin infiltratio.
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spin (n.)
1831, "a rapid revolving motion," from spin (v.). Meaning "fairly rapid ride" is from 1856. Sense of "a twisting delivery in throwing or striking a ball" is from 1851. Sense in physics is from 1926. Meaning "act of playing a phonograph record" is from 1977. Meaning "influence imparted by a media source" is from 1984.
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hologram (n.)

1949, coined by Hungarian-born British scientist Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes), 1971 Nobel prize winner in physics for his work in holography; from Greek holos "whole" (here in sense of "three-dimensional;" from PIE root *sol- "whole, well-kept") + -gram.

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nuclear (adj.)

1841, "of or like the nucleus of a cell," from nucleus + -ar, probably by influence of French nucléaire. General sense of "central" is from 1912. In atomic physics, "of or belonging to the nucleus of an atom," from 1914; of weapons deriving their destructive power from nuclear reactions, by 1945.

Hence nuclear energy (1930), nuclear physics (1933), nuclear war (1954). Nuclear winter was coined by U.S. atmospheric scientist Richard Turco but is first attested in article by Carl Sagan in "Parade" magazine, Oct. 30, 1983. Nuclear family, originally a sociologists' term, is first attested 1949 in "Social Structure," by American anthropologist G.P. Murdock (1897-1985). Alternative adjective nucleal is recorded from 1840, probably from French.

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refraction (n.)

"act of refracting; state of being refracted," 1570s, from Late Latin refractionem (nominative refractio) "a breaking up," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin refringere "to break up," from re- "back" (see re-) + combining form of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break"). According to Century Dictionary, "Almost exclusively restricted to physics" [1895].

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unify (v.)

c. 1500, "to make into one," from French unifier (14c.) or directly from Late Latin unificare "make one," from Latin uni- "one" (see uni-) + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Unified; unifying. Unified (field) theory in physics is recorded from 1935.

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conduction (n.)

1540s, "a leading, guidance" (a sense now obsolete), from French conduction "hire, renting," and directly from Latin conductionem (nominative conductio), noun of action from past-participle stem of conducere "to lead or bring together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + ducere "to lead" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead").

Sense of "a conducting through a channel" is from 1610s in reference to liquids; in physics, "transmission, conveyance" of heat, etc., from 1814.

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Einstein (n.)
as a type-name for a person of genius, 1920, in reference to German-born theoretical physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who was world-famous from 1919 through media accounts of his work in theoretical physics. According to "German-American Names" (George F. Jones, 3rd ed., 2006) it means literally "place encompassed by a stone wall."
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phase (v.)

"to synchronize, adjust the phase of so as to synchronize," 1895, from phase (n.) in the physics sense of "particular stage or point in a recurring sequence of movement or changes" (1861). Earlier as a bad spelling of faze. Meaning "to carry out gradually" is from 1949, hence phase in "introduce gradually" (1954), phase out "take out gradually in planned stages" (1954). Related: Phased; phasing.

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frequency (n.)
1550s, "state of being crowded" (now obsolete); 1640s, "fact of occurring often;" from Latin frequentia "an assembling in great numbers, a crowding; crowd, multitude, throng," from frequentem (see frequent). Sense in physics, "rate of recurrence," especially of a vibration, is from 1831. In radio electronics, frequency modulation (1922, abbreviated F.M.) as a system of broadcasting is distinguished from amplitude modulation (or A.M.).
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