Etymology
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roentgen 

in physics, 1896, in Roentgen rays "X-rays," in recognition of German physicist Wilhem Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923), who discovered X-rays in 1895. As a unit of exposure to radiation, it is attested from 1922, proposed in French in 1921.

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polarize (v.)

1811, "develop polarization in," in optics, from French polariser, coined by French physicist Étienne-Louis Malus (1775-1812) as a term in optics, from Modern Latin polaris "polar" (see polar). Transferred sense of "to accentuate a division in a group or system" is recorded from 1949 in Arthur Koestler. Related: Polarized; polarizing.

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overtone (n.)

1867, in music, "a harmonic, an upper partial tone," from over- + tone (n.); a loan-translation of German Oberton, which was first used by German physicist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894) as a contraction of Overpartialton "upper partial tone." Figurative sense of "subtle implication" is from 1890, in William James.

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lumen (n.)
unit of luminosity, 1897, coined in French 1894 by French physicist André-Eugène Blondel (1863-1938) from Latin lumen "light" (n.), from suffixed form of PIE root *leuk- "light, brightness." Earlier it was used in anatomy for "an opening or passageway" (1873).
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hafnium (n.)
rare element, 1923, Modern Latin, from Hafnia, Medieval Latin form of Danish Havn "harbor," the usual pre-1400 name of Copenhagen, Denmark, where the element was discovered by physicist Dirk Coster (1889-1950) and chemist George de Hevesy (1885-1966). With metallic element ending -ium.
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barometer (n.)

1660s, from Greek baros "weight" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gwere- (1) "heavy") + -meter. The name probably was coined (and certainly popularized) by English scientist Robert Boyle (1627-1691). The instrument was invented 1643 by Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli and was at first known as the Torricelli tube.

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anode (n.)

1834, coined from Greek anodos "way upward," from ano "upward," from ana "up" (see ana-) + hodos "a way," a word of uncertain origin (see Exodus). Proposed by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath, and published by English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday. So called from the path the electrical current was thought to take. Compare cathode. Related: Anodic, anodal.

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phenomenology (n.)

1797, "the science of phenomena, as distinct from that of being;" 1840 as "a description or history of phenomena," the latter sense from German Phänomenologie, used as the title of the fourth part of the "Neues Organon" of German physicist Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777), coined from Greek phainomenon (see phenomenon) + -logia (see -logy). Psychological sense, especially in Gestalt theory, is from 1930. Related: Phenomenological; phenomenologically.

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anion (n.)

"a negatively charged ion, which moves toward the anode (q.v.) during electrolysis," 1834, proposed by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath, and published by English physicist Michael Faraday, from Greek anion "(thing) going up," neuter past participle of anienai "go up," from ana "up" (see ana-) + ienai "go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go"). Related: Anionic.

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macromolecule (n.)

1886, "molecule consisting of several molecules," a sense now obsolete, from macro- + molecule. Apparently coined in "On Macro-molecules, with the Determinations of the Form of Some of Them," by Anglo-Irish physicist G. Johnstone Stoney (1826–1911). Originally of crystals. Meaning "molecule composed of many atoms" is by 1935, from German makromolekul (1922). Related: Macromolecular (by 1931).

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