Etymology
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apart (adv.)

"to or at the side; by itself, away from others," late 14c., from Old French a part (Modern French à part) "to the side," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + partem, accusative of pars "a part, piece, a faction, a part of the body" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). The first element is probably felt in English as a- as in abroad, ahead (see a- (1)). As an adjective from 1786.

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quart (n.)

liquid measure of capacity equal to one-fourth of a gallon, early 14c., from Old French quarte "a fourth part" (13c.), from Latin quarta (pars), fem. of quartus "the fourth, fourth part" (related to quattuor "four," from PIE root *kwetwer- "four").

Compare Latin quartarius "fourth part," also the name of a small liquid measure (the fourth part of a sextarius), which was about the same as an English pint.

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mero- 

before vowels mer-, word-forming element meaning "part, partial, fraction," from Greek meros "a part, a fraction," from PIE root *(s)mer- (2) "to get a share of something."

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treble (n.)
"highest part in music, soprano," mid-14c., from Anglo-French treble, Old French treble "a third part," noun use of adjective (see treble (adj.)). In early contrapuntal music, the chief melody was in the tenor, and the treble was the "third" part above it (after the alto).
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substructure (n.)
1726, "foundation, part of a building which supports another part," from sub- + structure (n.). Earlier in this sense was substruction (1620s). Related: Substructural.
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member (n.)

c. 1300, "body part or organ, an integral part of an animal body having a distinct function" (in plural, "the body"), from Old French membre "part, portion; topic, subject; limb, member of the body; member" (of a group, etc.)," 11c., from Latin membrum "limb, member of the body, part," probably from PIE *mems-ro, from root *mems- "flesh, meat" (source also of Sanskrit mamsam "flesh;" Greek meninx "membrane," mēros "thigh" (the "fleshy part"); Gothic mimz "flesh").

In common use, "one of the limbs or extremities." Especially "the sex organ" (c. 1300, compare Latin membrum virile, but in English originally of women as well as men). Figurative sense of "anything likened to a part of the body" is by 14c., hence "a component part of any aggregate or whole, constituent part of a complex structure, one of a number of associated parts or entities."

The transferred sense of "person belonging to a group" is attested from mid-14c., from notion of "person considered in relation to an aggregate of individuals to which he or she belongs," especially one who has united with or been formally chosen as a corporate part of an association or public body. This meaning was reinforced by, if not directly from, the use of member in Christian theology and discourse from mid-14c. for "a Christian" (a "member" of the Church as the "Body of Christ"). Meaning "one who has been elected to parliament" is from early 15c.

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audition (v.)
1935 (transitive) "give (an applicant for a performance part) a trial or test," from audition (n.). Intransitive sense "try out for a performance part" is from 1938. Related: Auditioned; auditioning.
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middle (n.)

"point or part equally distant from the extremes, limits, or extremities," Old English middel, from middle (adj.). As "middle part of the human body" in Old English. From c. 1300 as "the second of three."

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hippocampus (n.)
c. 1600, a kind of sea monster, part horse and part dolphin or fish, often pictured pulling Neptune's chariot, from Late Latin hippocampus, from Greek hippokampos, from hippos "horse" (from PIE root *ekwo- "horse") + kampos "a sea monster," which is perhaps related to kampe "caterpillar." Used from 1570s as a name of a type of fish (the seahorse); of a part of the brain from 1706, on supposed resemblance to the fish.
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repulse (n.)

late 15c., "defeat," in part from the English verb, in part from Old French repulse, variant of repousse, and in part directly from Latin repulsa "refusal, denial" (as in repulsa petitio "a repulse in soliciting for an office"), noun use of fem. of repulsus, past participle of repellere "to drive back" (see repel).

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