Etymology
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imagine (v.)

mid-14c., "to form a mental image of," from Old French imaginer "sculpt, carve, paint; decorate, embellish" (13c.), from Latin imaginari "to form a mental picture, picture to oneself, imagine" (also, in Late Latin imaginare "to form an image of, represent"), from imago "an image, a likeness," from stem of imitari "to copy, imitate" (from PIE root *aim- "to copy"). Sense of "suppose, assume" is first recorded late 14c. Related: Imagined; imagining.

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azure (n.)
"sky-blue color; pigment or paint made of powdered lapis lazuli," early 14c., from Old French azur, asur, a color name (12c.), from a false separation of Medieval Latin lazur, lazuri (as though the -l- were the French article l'), which comes from Greek lazour, from Persian lajward, from Lajward, a place in Turkestan mentioned by Marco Polo, where the stone was collected.
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key (v.)
mid-14c., "fasten with a wedge or key" (implied in keyed), from key (n.1). From 1630s as "regulate the pitch of a musical instrument by means of a key," also in the figurative sense "give a tone or intensity to." From 1963 as "do data entry or other work on a keyboard." Meaning "to scratch (a car's paint job) with a metal key" is recorded by 1986. Related: Keyed; keying.
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gilded (adj.)
1560s, past-participle adjective from gild (v.). Late Old English had gegylde; Middle English had gilden (adj.). In modern use the more dignified past participle of gild, alternative to gilt. Shakespeare's lilies were never gilded; the quote ("King John," iv.2) is, "To gild refined gold, to paint the lily." Gilded Age as an era in U.S. history (roughly 1870-1900) is from the novel "The Gilded Age" by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, published in 1873.
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brush (n.1)
"instrument consisting of flexible material (bristles, hair, etc.) attached to a handle or stock," late 14c., "dust-sweeper, a brush for sweeping," from Old French broisse, broce "a brush" (13c., Modern French brosse), perhaps from Vulgar Latin *bruscia "a bunch of new shoots" (used to sweep away dust), perhaps from Proto-Germanic *bruskaz "underbrush." Compare brush (n.2). As an instrument for applying paint, late 15c.; as an instrument for playing drums, 1927. Meaning "an application of a brush" is from 1822.
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stain (v.)
late 14c., "damage or blemish the appearance of," probably representing a merger of Old Norse steina "to paint, color, stain," and a shortened form of Middle English disteynen "to discolor or stain," from Old French desteign-, stem of desteindre "to remove the color" (Modern French déteindre), from des- (from Latin dis- "remove;" see dis-) + Old French teindre "to dye," from Latin tingere (see tincture). Meaning "to color" (fabric, wood, etc.) is from 1650s. Intransitive sense "to become stained, take stain" is from 1877. Related: Stained; staining. Stained glass is attested from 1791.
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schlemazel (n.)

also schlimazel, etc., "born loser, unlucky person," 1948, from Yiddish phrase shlim mazel "rotten luck," from Middle High German slim "crooked" (see slim (adj.)) + Hebrew mazzal "luck" (as in mazel tov). British slang shemozzle "an unhappy plight" (1889) probably is from the same source. Compare schlemiel.

A shlemiel is the fellow who climbs to the top of a ladder with a bucket of paint and then drops it. A shimazl is the fellow on whose head the bucket falls. [Rep. Stephen J. Solarz, D.-N.Y., quoted 1986; there are many and older versions of the quip]
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miniature (n.)

1580s, "a reduced image, anything represented on a greatly reduced scale," especially a painting of very small dimensions, from Italian miniatura "manuscript illumination or small picture," from past participle of miniare "to illuminate a manuscript," from Latin miniare "to paint red," from minium "red lead," used in ancient times to make red ink, a word said to be of Iberian origin. Sense development is because pictures in medieval manuscripts were small, but no doubt there was influence as well from the similar-sounding Latin words that express smallness: minor, minimus, minutus, etc.

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painter (n.2)

mid-14c., "rope or chain that holds an anchor to a ship's side," probably from Old French peintor, ultimately from Latin pendere "to hang, cause to hang" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Extended generally to "rope attached to the bow of a boat."

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rouge (n.)

1753, "red cosmetic coloring for the skin, fine red powder used to give artificial color to the face," from French rouge "red coloring matter," noun use of adjective meaning "red" (12c.), from Latin rubeus, related to ruber "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").

It replaced native paint in this sense. The verb, "to color (the skin, especially the cheeks) with rouge" is attested by 1777. Related: Rouged; rouging. The same French word had been borrowed in Middle English with the sense of "red color" (early 15c.), also "red" (adj.).

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