Etymology
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Muscat 

capital of Oman, from Arabic Masqat, said to mean "hidden" (it is isolated from the interior by hills).

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necking (n.)

"embracing and caressing a member of the opposite sex," 1825; see neck (v.). In architecture, "moldings near the capital of a column."

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Tokyo 

so named 1868, from Japanese to "east" + kyo "capital;" its earlier name was Edo, literally "estuary."

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analytic (adj.)

"relating to or operating by analogy," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin analyticus, from Greek analytikos "analytical," from analytos "dissolved," from analyein "unloose, release, set free," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

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Constantinople 

from 330 C.E. to 1930 the name of what is now Istanbul and formerly was Byzantium, the city on the European side of the Bosphorus that served as the former capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, from Greek Konstantinou polis "Constantine's city," named for Roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (see Constantine), who transferred the Roman capital there.

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gammadion (n.)

ornamental figure formed of four capital gammas, Medieval Greek gammadion, diminutive of Greek gamma (see gamma).

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Oslo 

Norwegian capital city, a name probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," in reference to the place's situation.

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Ottawa 

Canadian capital, founded 1827 as Bytown, named for English officer John By, who oversaw construction of the canal there; renamed 1854, when it became capital, for the Ottawa River, which took its name from the Algonquian people who lived in Michigan and Ontario. Their name is said to be from adawe "to trade."

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Bern 

Swiss capital, probably originally from PIE *ber- "marshy place," but by folk etymology from German Bär "bear" (compare Berlin). Related: Bernese.

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cooperative (adj.)

also co-operative, "operating or striving jointly for the attaining of certain ends," c. 1600, from Late Latin cooperat-, past participle stem of cooperari "to work together" (see cooperation) + -ive. Political economy sense is from 1808, from the pre-Marx communist movement. The noun meaning "a cooperative store" is from 1883; meaning "a cooperative society" is from 1921.

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