Etymology
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menstruate (v.)

1680s, "pollute with menstrual blood" (transitive), a sense now rare or obsolete; 1752 as "to discharge the menses," probably a back-formation from menstruation, or else from Latin menstruatus, past participle of menstruare, from menstruus "monthly," from mensis "month" (see moon (n.)). Related: Menstruated; menstruating.

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gamete (n.)
"sexual protoplasmic body," 1880, coined 1878 by German cytologist Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912), the widespread attribution of the word's coinage to Mendel being apparently erroneous. From Greek gamete "a wife," gametes "a husband," from gamein "to take to wife, to marry," from PIE root *gem(e)- "to marry" (source also of Greek gambros "son-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law;" Sanskrit jamih "brother, sister," jama daughter-in-law;" Avestan zama-tar "son-in-law;" Latin gener "son-in-law"). See also -gamy. The seventh month of the ancient Attic calendar (corresponding to late January and early February) was Gamelion, "Month of Marriages." Related: Gametal.
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Old English (n.)

1701 as a typeface, from old + English. It was used to meaning "the Anglo-Saxon language before the Conquest, old-fashioned or archaic English" in a c. 1200 account of the native (as opposed to Latin) month names, but the modern linguistic use is from 19c. (see Middle English).

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semester (n.)
1827, from German Semester "half-year course in a university," from Latin semestris, in cursus semestris "course of six months," from semestris, semenstris "of six months, lasting six months, half-yearly, semi-annual," from sex "six" (see six) + mensis "month" (see moon (n.)). Related: Semestral; semestrial.
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ides (n.)
"middle day of a Roman month," early 14c., from Old French ides (12c.), from Latin idus (plural) "the ides," a word perhaps of Etruscan origin. In the Roman calendar the eighth day after the nones, corresponding to the 15th of March, May, July, and October; the 13th of other months. "Debts and interest were often payable on the ides" [Lewis].
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neve (n.)

"field of granular snow, firn," 1843, from French névé (19c.), probably from Savoyard névi "mass of snow," from Latin nivem (nominative nix) "snow" (source of French neige), from PIE root *sneigwh- "snow, to snow" (see snow (n.)). Nivôse was the fourth month of the French revolutionary calendar, Dec. 21 to Jan. 19.

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first (n.)
1560s, "that which is first," from first (adj.). Meaning "first day of the month" is by 1590s. In music, "instrument or voice that takes the highest or chief part of its class," 1774. From 1909 as the name of the lowest gear in an engine. In British schools colloquial use, "highest rank in an examination," 1850.
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Pyanepsia (n.)

festival in honor of Apollo on the 7th of Pyanepsion (fourth month of the Attic calendar, corresponding to October-November), from Greek Pyanepsia (plural), literally "the feast of cooking beans," from pyanos, variant of kyamos, name of a kind of bean, a word of unknown origin (perhaps foreign or Pre-Greek), + epsein "to boil, cook." At this festival a dish of pulse was offered to the god.

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instant (adj.)

mid-15c., "now, present, of the moment, current," from Old French instant "near, imminent, immediate, at hand; urgent, assiduous" (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin instantem (nominative instans), in classical Latin "present, pressing, urgent," literally "standing near," present participle of instare "to urge, to stand near, be present (to urge one's case)," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Sense of "immediate, done or occurring at once" is from 1590s. Of processed foods, by 1912; instant coffee is from 1915. Televised sports instant replay attested by 1965. Instant messaging attested by 1994.

The word was used 18c.-19c. in dating of correspondence, meaning "the current month," often abbreviated inst. Thus 16th inst. means "sixteenth of the current month" (compare proximo, ultimo).

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Martian (adj.)

late 14c., marcien "of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the planet Mars" (originally in reference to astrological influence), from Latin Martius "sacred to (the god) Mars; pertaining to (the planet) Mars," from Mars (genitive Martis; see Mars). From mid-15c. as "of or pertaining to the god Mars, warlike;" also sometimes "of or pertaining to the month of March" (1620s). The noun meaning "an inhabitant of the planet Mars" is attested by 1877.

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