Etymology
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deipnosophist (n.)

"gourmand," 1650s, from Greek deipnosophistes "one learned in the mysteries of the kitchen," from deipnon "chief meal, dinner" (which is of unknown origin) + sophistes "master of a craft" (see sophist). the word has come down thanks to "Deipnosophistai," 2c. B.C.E. work on gastronomy by Athenaeus.

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leftover (adj.)
also left-over, "remaining, not used up," 1890, from left + over. The noun meaning "something left over" is from 1891; leftovers "excess food after a meal" (especially if re-served later) is from 1878; in this sense Old English had metelaf.
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dinner (n.)

c. 1300, "first big meal of the day" (eaten between 9 a.m. and noon), from Old French disner "breakfast" (11c.), noun use of infinitive disner (Modern French dîner) "take the first meal of the day," from Gallo-Roman *desiunare "to break one's fast," from Vulgar Latin *disieiunare, from dis- "undo, do the opposite of" (see dis-) + Late Latin ieiunare, jejunare  "to fast," from Latin ieiunus "fasting, hungry, not partaking of food" (see jejune).

Always used in English for the main meal of the day, but the time of that has gradually grown later.

In medieval and modern Europe the common practice, down to the middle of the eighteenth century, was to take this meal about midday, or in more primitive times even as early as 9 or 10 A.M. In France, under the old régime, the dinner-hour was at 2 or 3 in the afternoon; but when the Constituent Assembly moved to Paris, since it sat until 4 or 5 o'clock, the hour for dining was postponed. The custom of dining at 6 o'clock or later has since become common, except in the country, where early dinner is still the general practice. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

The change from midday to evening began with the fashionable classes. Compare dinette.

Dinner-time is attested from late 14c.; dinner-hour is from 1750. Dinner-table is from 1784; dinner-jacket from 1852; dinner-party by 1780. Childish reduplication din-din is attested from 1905.

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aperitif (n.)

"alcoholic drink taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite," 1890, from French apéritif "laxative, laxative liqueur," literally "opening," from Latin aperitivus, from aperire "to open, uncover," from PIE compound *ap-wer-yo- from *ap- "off, away" (see apo-) + root *wer- (4) "to cover." A doublet of apertive.

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prandial (adj.)

"pertaining to dinner" or other meal, 1820, from Latin prandium "late breakfast, luncheon," from *pram "early" (from PIE *pre-, variant of root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before, first") + edere "to eat" (from PIE root *ed- "to eat") + -al (1). OED reports it as "affected or jocose." Compare postprandial.

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barley (n.)

hardy cereal plant, Old English bærlic, apparently originally an adjective, "of barley," from bere "barley" (from Proto-Germanic *bariz, *baraz) + -lic "body, like." First element is related to Old Norse barr "barley," and cognate with Latin far (genitive farris) "coarse grain, meal" (see farina).

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muesli (n.)

breakfast dish of oats, fruit, and nuts, eaten with milk or yogurt, 1926, from Swiss-German, from Old High German muos "meal, mush-like food," from Proto-Germanic *mod-sa-, from PIE root *mad- "moist, wet," with derivatives referring to various qualities of food (see mast (n.2)).

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dessert (n.)

"a service of fruits and sweets at the close of a meal," c. 1600, from French dessert (mid-16c.) "last course," literally "removal of what has been served," from desservir "clear the table," literally "un-serve," from des- "remove, undo" (see dis-) + Old French servir "to serve" (see serve (v.)). Dessert-wine is from 1733; dessert-spoon from 1776.

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breakfast (n.)

"first meal of the day," mid-15c., from the verbal phrase; see break (v.) + fast (n.). For vowel shift, see below. An Old English word for it was undernmete (see undern), also morgenmete "morning meal."

Spanish almuerzo "lunch," but formerly and still locally "breakfast," is from Latin admorsus, past participle of admordere "to bite into," from ad "to" + mordēre "to bite" (see mordant). German Frühstück is from Middle High German vruostücke, literally "early bit."

In common with almuerzo, words for "breakfast" tend over time to shift in meaning toward "lunch;" compare French déjeuner "breakfast," later "lunch" (cognate of Spanish desayuno "breakfast"), from Vulgar Latin *disieiunare "to breakfast," from Latin dis- "apart, in a different direction from" + ieiunare, jejunare "fast" (see jejune; also compare dine). Greek ariston in Homer and Herodotus was a meal at the break of day but in classical times taken in the afternoon.

The long/short vowel contrast in break/breakfast represents a common pattern where words from Old English have a long vowel in their modern form but a short vowel as the first element of a compound: Christ/Christmas, holy/holiday, moon/Monday, sheep/shepherd, wild/wilderness, etc.

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seconds (n.)

c. 1600, "articles below the first quality," plural of second (n.) in the sense of "that which is after the first" (fingers, sons, Commandments, etc., early 14c.), from second (adj.). First attested in this sense in a Shakespeare sonnet. Meaning "second helping of food at a meal" is recorded from 1792.

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