Etymology
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potluck (n.)

also pot-luck, 1590s, "meal accepted from another and made without preparation," from pot (n.1) + luck; with notion of "one's luck or chance as to what may be in the pot." As an adjective from 1775.

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a la carte 
"ordered by separate items" (itemized on a bill); distinguished from a table d'hôte, indicating a meal served at a fixed, inclusive price; 1826, from French à la carte, literally "by the card" (see a la + card (n.1)).
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Humphrey 
masc. proper name, from Old English Hunfrið, probably from Proto-Germanic *hun "strength" + Old English frið "peace." To dine with Duke Humphrey (17c.) meant to go without a meal, though the reason for the expression now is obscure.
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grout (n.)
"thin, fluid mortar" used in joints of masonry and brickwork, 1580s, extended from sense "coarse porridge," perhaps from Old English gruta (plural) "coarse meal," from Proto-Germanic *grut-, from PIE root *ghreu- "to rub, grind" (see grit (n.)). As a verb from 1838. Related: grouted; grouting.
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afternoon (n.)

"part of the day from noon to evening," c. 1300, from after + noon. In 15c.-16c., the form was at afternoon; from c. 1600 it has been in the afternoon. As an adjective from 1570s. Middle English had also aftermete "afternoon, part of the day following the noon meal" (mid-14c.).

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waiter (n.)
late 14c., "attendant, watchman," agent noun from wait (v.). Sense of "attendant at a meal, servant who waits at tables" is from late 15c., originally in reference to household servants; in reference to inns, eating houses, etc., it is attested from 1660s.
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deipnosophist (n.)

"gourmand," 1650s, from Greek deipnosophistes "one learned in the mysteries of the kitchen," from deipnon "chief meal, dinner" (which is of unknown origin) + sophistes "master of a craft" (see sophist). the word has come down thanks to "Deipnosophistai," 2c. B.C.E. work on gastronomy by Athenaeus.

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leftover (adj.)
also left-over, "remaining, not used up," 1890, from left + over. The noun meaning "something left over" is from 1891; leftovers "excess food after a meal" (especially if re-served later) is from 1878; in this sense Old English had metelaf.
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dinner (n.)

c. 1300, "first big meal of the day" (eaten between 9 a.m. and noon), from Old French disner "breakfast" (11c.), noun use of infinitive disner (Modern French dîner) "take the first meal of the day," from Gallo-Roman *desiunare "to break one's fast," from Vulgar Latin *disieiunare, from dis- "undo, do the opposite of" (see dis-) + Late Latin ieiunare, jejunare  "to fast," from Latin ieiunus "fasting, hungry, not partaking of food" (see jejune).

Always used in English for the main meal of the day, but the time of that has gradually grown later.

In medieval and modern Europe the common practice, down to the middle of the eighteenth century, was to take this meal about midday, or in more primitive times even as early as 9 or 10 A.M. In France, under the old régime, the dinner-hour was at 2 or 3 in the afternoon; but when the Constituent Assembly moved to Paris, since it sat until 4 or 5 o'clock, the hour for dining was postponed. The custom of dining at 6 o'clock or later has since become common, except in the country, where early dinner is still the general practice. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

The change from midday to evening began with the fashionable classes. Compare dinette.

Dinner-time is attested from late 14c.; dinner-hour is from 1750. Dinner-table is from 1784; dinner-jacket from 1852; dinner-party by 1780. Childish reduplication din-din is attested from 1905.

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aperitif (n.)

"alcoholic drink taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite," 1890, from French apéritif "laxative, laxative liqueur," literally "opening," from Latin aperitivus, from aperire "to open, uncover," from PIE compound *ap-wer-yo- from *ap- "off, away" (see apo-) + root *wer- (4) "to cover." A doublet of apertive.

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