Etymology
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Cornwall 

county in the far southwest of England, from Old English Cornwalas (891) "inhabitants of Cornwall," literally "the Corn Welsh," from the original Celtic tribal name *Cornowii (Latinized as Cornovii), literally "peninsula people, the people of the horn," from Celtic kernou "horn," hence "headland," from PIE *ker- (1) "horn; head, uppermost part of the body" (see horn (n.)), in reference to the long "horn" of land on which they live. To this the Anglo-Saxons added the plural of Old English walh "stranger, foreigner," especially if Celtic (see Welsh). The Romans knew it as Cornubia; hence poetic Cornubian.

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Archibald 

masc. proper name, from Old High German Erchanbald, literally "genuine-bold," from erchan "genuine" + bald (see bold). Archie, British World War I military slang for "German anti-aircraft fire" or the guns that produce it (1915) is said in contemporary sources to be from the airmen dodging hostile fire and thinking of the refrain of a then-popular music hall song.

It's no use me denying facts, I'm henpecked, you can see!
'Twas on our wedding day my wife commenced to peck at me
The wedding breakfast over, I said, "We'll start off today
Upon our honeymoon."
Then she yelled, "What! waste time that way?"
[chorus] "Archibald, certainly not!
Get back to work at once, sir, like a shot.
When single you could waste time spooning
But lose work now for honeymooning!
Archibald, certainly not!"
[John L. St. John & Alfred Glover, "Archibald, Certainly Not"]
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Louis 
masc. proper name, from French Louis, from Old French Loois, probably via Medieval Latin Ludovicus, a Latinization of Old High German Hluodowig, literally "famous in war" (cognate with Clovis; for etymology see Ludwig).

As the name of a French gold coin 17c.-18c., short for Louis d'or, from the French kings of that name (originally Louis XIII) pictured on the coins. Louis-Quatorze (1855) refers to styles reminiscent of the time of King Louis XIV of France (1643-1715).
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Idaho 
1861 as a place name, originally applied by U.S. Congress to a proposed territorial division centered in what is now eastern Colorado; said at the time to mean "Gem of the Mountains" but probably rather from Kiowa-Apache (Athabaskan) idaahe "enemy," a name applied by them to the Comanches. Modern Idaho was organized 1861 as a county in Washington Territory; in 1863 became a territory in its own right and it was admitted as a state in 1890.
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Sparta 
capital of Laconia in ancient Greece, famed for severity of its social order, the frugality of its people, the valor of its arms, and the brevity of its speech. Also for dirty boys, men vain of their long hair, boxing girls, iron money, and insufferable black broth. The name is said to be from Greek sparte "cord made from spartos," a type of broom, from PIE *spr-to-, from root *sper- (2) "to turn, twist" (see spiral (adj.)). Perhaps the reference is to the cords laid as foundation markers for the city. Or the whole thing could be folk etymology.
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Vinland 
name supposedly given by Leif Erikssson to lands he explored in northeastern North America c. 1000; it could mean either "vine-land" or "meadow-land," and either way was perhaps coined to encourage settlement (compare Greenland).

That others might have found the New World before Columbus was popular knowledge: Irving's "History of New York" (1809) lists Noah along with Phoenician, Carthaginian, Tyrean, Chinese, German, and Welsh candidates, along with "the Norwegians, in 1002, under Biorn." Evidence in the old sagas of a Norse discovery of North America had been noticed from time to time by those who could read them. In early 19c. the notion was seriously debated by von Humboldt and other European scholars before winning their general acceptance by the 1830s. The case for the identification of Vinland with North America began to be laid out in English-language publications in 1840. Lowell wrote a poem about it ("Hakon's Lay," 1855). Thoreau knew of it ("Ktaadn," 1864). Physical evidence of the Norse discovery was uncovered by the excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960.
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Polaris (n.)

1769, short for stella polaris, Modern Latin, literally "the pole star" (see polar). The ancient Greeks called it Phoenice, "the Phoenician (star)," because the Phoenicians used it for navigation. Due to precession of the equinoxes the pole was a few degrees off (closer to Beta Ursae Minoris), but evidently Polaris was close enough. Also see pole (n.2). The Old English word for it was Scip-steorra "ship-star," also reflecting its importance in navigation. As the name of a U.S. Navy long-range submarine-launched guided nuclear missile, it dates from 1957.

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D.C. 
abbreviation of District of Columbia, apparently not widely used before 1820, but eventually it became necessary to distinguish the place from the many other "Washingtons" in America. The city and the district were named in 1791 (at first known as Territory of Columbia; the territory was organized as a "district" in 1801), but the towns within it (Washington, Georgetown, Alexandria) remained separate municipalities and at one time all took D.C. The district was effectively organized as a unitary municipality in 1871.
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Tso 
in Chinese restaurant dishes, a reference to General Tso Tsungtang (1812-1885), military leader during the late Qing dynasty who crushed the Taiping rebels in four provinces. The chicken dish that bears his name (for no apparent reason) in Chinese restaurants apparently is modified from a traditional Hunan chung ton gai and may have been named for the general c. 1972 by a chef in New York City during the time Hunan cuisine first became popular among Americans.
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Capri 
island in the Bay of Naples, a name of unknown origin: Latin capra "she-goat," Greek kapros "boar," Etruscan capra "burial place" all have been suggested. As a type of wine, 1877; as a type of pants, 1956 (said to have been designed c. 1948); so called perhaps because they were first popular in Capri, which was emerging as a European holiday destination about this time (compare Bermuda shorts). Related: capris "capri pants" (1966).
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